Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks factors among the staff of three secondary schools in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria
Objective: The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, hence the need for early identification of risk factors. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the associated behavioral risks among secondary school staff in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 118 staff at three secondary schools in Owo was conducted using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Demographic and clinical data were obtained as well as fasting or random blood glucose measurements using standard methods. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 21.0.
Results: The mean age of participants was 43 ± 8 years, 59.3% were females. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was found in 2.8% of the participants, 18.5% were hypertensive, 22.0% were Obese while 25.4% had abdominal obesity. In all, 13.6% smoke cigarette, 35.6% drank alcohol, 49.2% does not add at least a spoonful of vegetable to their meals, 27.1% does not engage in physical exercise while 78.0% do not eat fruits at least once a day. About 58.4% of the respondents had at least one risky behaviour. More male respondents (22.9%) had a self-perceived risk of Diabetes Mellitus (p=0.001), 40.0% of female respondents had abdominal obesity (p<0.001). Correlation (r=0.347) exist between Waist/Hip ratio and random blood glucose, (p=0.012)
Conclusion: Despite low prevalence of diabetes mellitus, many had at least one risky behaviour. Intensifying efforts on educating the general population on the risk factors for Diabetes Mellitus and lifestyle modification is important.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, behavioural risk factors, lifestyle, blood pressure, obesity