Globalising and internationalising the higher education sector: challenges and contradictions in less industrialised countries
AbstractThe increasing shift towards globalisation, internationalisation, marketisation and managerialism in Higher Education (HE) in Advanced Industrialised Countries (AICs) and in general, and in Less Industrialised Countries (LICs) in particular, is examined. The post-apartheid case of South Africa is used as an example of these processes in LICs. It contests the impacts and influences of increasing managerialism, the introduction and domination of the discourse and language of business in HE, emphasis on public accountability, creation of quasi-market HE sector, gradual move away from institutional autonomy, collegiate culture towards entrepreneurial and academic capitalism culture in HE in general, and in post-apartheid in particular. It further examines issues of equity, redress, social justice and social reconstruction and development in relation to globalisation, marketisation and internationalisation in HE in LICs. It is concluded that, the HE sector in LICs is shaped by worldwide structural adjustments, which HE must respond to, however, intra-state and intra-institutional competition creates a situation where the rich sections of communities and historically advantaged institutions become richer, and poor ones poorer. It concludes that historical inequitable allocation of resources to HE within nation-states tend to entrench and reproduce inequalities because HLIs have no capacity to diversify their funding base, to become entrepreneurial and capitalist institutions. It is therefore concluded that, while globalisation and managerialism have had negative effects on HE, many institutions have not been able to respond to these challenges.
South African Journal of Higher Education Vol.16(1) 2002:82-90