Author GuidelinesScope. The South African Journal of Sports Medicine is an international, refereed journal published for professionals with a primary interest in sports medicine and exercise science practice. The journal publishes original research and reviews covering diagnostics, therapeutics and rehabilitation in healthy and physically challenged individuals of all ages and levels of sport and exercise participation. Original manuscripts, i.e., those that have not been published elsewhere except in abstract form, will be accepted from all countries and subject to peer review by the Editors and Editorial Board. The South African Journal of Sports Medicine invites articles for submission from the areas of: (1) diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of sport- and exercise-related injuries, (2) medical illnesses induced by or exacerbated by exercise, (3) the relationship between exercise and health, including exercise physiology, (4) the medical care of physically active individuals, (5) sports psychology, (6) sports nutrition, and (7) biomechanics related to sport. Articles are invited from within the following categories: ORIGINAL RESEARCH: Clinical research and basic science articles that are clinically relevant. BRIEF REPORTS: Clinical studies that are limited in depth or scope but with important findings to report. CASE REPORTS: Reports of clinical observations that have been carefully documented are particularly instructive. Additional manuscripts may be submitted, after consulting with the Editor-in-Chief, in the following categories: LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: LEAD EDITORIALS: These are short syntheses of data and current thought on topical issues in the field of sports medicine. REVIEW ARTICLES: These should be concise, in-depth, and well referenced; they should use the principles of critical appraisal (evidence-based medicine). POSITION STATEMENTS: These succinct but comprehensive documents are typically prepared by a recognised society for the purpose of providing clinical guidelines in important areas of sports medicine. Form of manuscript. Send manuscripts to Professor Mike Lambert, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, P O Box 115, Newlands, Cape Town, 7925, Tel: (021) 6504558, Fax (021) 686 7530. Three copies of each manuscript must be submitted, in English in 1.5 spaced, typewritten form with a 5cm (2inch) left margin. Pages should be numbered from the title page. The text of the manuscript should be in the following sequence: Structured abstract (including key words), Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References, tables, and figure legends. For clarity, subheadings are recommended wherever appropriate. In the case of research articles, a short section in the Discussion or Conclusion should summarise the clinical relevance of the research. The author should retain a copy for reference, as manuscripts are not routinely returned. The title page of each manuscript should include only the article title, the authors' full names (first name, middle initial, last name), academic degrees and affiliations, the name, address, telephone and E-mail numbers of the person to whom proofs and reprint requests should be addressed, necessary footnotes to these items, and a running title not exceeding 45 letters and spaces. Indicate specific institutional affiliations of each author. Please list degrees or their equivalents. Information concerning sources of financial support should be placed in the Acknowledgement section. The page following the title page should include a structured abstract prepared according to the detailed instructions listed below. Up to six key words should be included at the end of the structured abstract. In the case of research studies, a single statement summarising the clinical relevance should be included. Case report. Case reports considered for publication must meet the following criteria. They must: 1) report a new syndrome, injury, or medical condition, 2) report a new test or diagnostic technique or method, or 3) draw attention to important clinical complications or problems associated with a common condition. The format of a case report is different from other submitted manuscripts. The differences are as follows; 1) The case must have at least one and a maximum of two figures. 2) The report will be published without an abstract. 3) A maximum of 10 references will be accepted. 4) The subheadings to be used are: · Introduction, one or two sentences · Case Report(s) · Discussion 5) The total length of the manuscript must not exceed two typeset pages (or approximately six typed, double-spaced manuscript pages) and the Editor(s) reserve the right to shorten a manuscript to fit the space requirements. Generally speaking, two figures plus references will limit the maximum text to approximately 1000 words. Instructions for structured abstracts. Articles containing original data concerning the course (prognosis), cause (aetiology), diagnosis, treatment, prevention, or economic analysis of a clinical disorder or an intervention to improve the quality of health care must include a structured abstract of no longer than 250 words using the following headings and information; OBJECTIVE. State the main question or objective of the study and the major hypothesis tested, if any. DESIGN. Describe the design of the study indicating, as appropriate, use of randomisation, blinding, criterion standards for diagnostic tests, temporal direction (retrospective or prospective), and so on. SETTING. Indicate the study setting, including the level of clinical care (for example, primary or tertiary; private practice or institutional). INTERVENTIONS. Describe essential features of any interventions, including their method and duration of administration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S). The primary study outcome measures should be indicated as planned before data collection began. If the hypothesis being reported was formulated during or after data collection, this fact should be clearly stated. RESULTS. Describe measurements that are not evident from the nature of the main results and indicate any blinding. If possible, the results should be accompanied by confidence intervals (most often 95% interval) and the exact level of statistical significance. For comparative studies confidence intervals should relate to the differences between groups. Absolute values should be indicated when risk changes or effect sizes are given. CONCLUSIONS. State only those conclusions of the study that are directly supported by data, along with their clinical application (avoiding over-generalisation) or whether additional study is required before the information should be used in usual clinical settings. Equal emphasis must be given to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit. ABSTRACTS for review articles should have the following headings and information: OBJECTIVES. State the primary objective of the review article. DATA SOURCES. Describe the data sources that were searched, including dates, terms, and constraints. STUDY SELECTION. Identify the number of studies reviewed and the criteria used for their selection. DATA EXTRACTION. Summarise guidelines used for abstracting data and how they were applied. DATA SYNTHESIS. State the main results of the review and the methods used to obtain these results. CONCLUSIONS. State primary conclusions and their clinical applications, avoiding over-generalisation. Suggest areas for additional research if needed. For more detailed information and examples of structured abstracts, please contact the Editor-in-Chief directly. Three copies of original tables, illustrations, and photos must accompany the manuscripts. TABLESshould be typed neatly, each on a separate sheet, with title above and any notes below. Explain all abbreviations. Do not give the same information in tables and figures. Each table should be accompanied by an explicit, detailed legend. ILLUSTRATIONS should be submitted unmounted; identified on the back with the author's name and figure number; and the top plainly marked. If any tables or illustrations submitted have been published elsewhere, written consent to republication should be obtained by the author from the copyright holder and the author(s). GRAPHS AND DRAWINGS should be 12 x 18² (approximately) glossy prints and should be of professional quality. X-RAYS OR CLINICAL PHOTOGRAPHS. Remove all markings from x-rays before photographing (such as patient's initials, dates, degree markings). Any arrows or lettering must be applied with a professional product. These identifying marks should be large enough to be seen when the photo is reduced. Sequences of radiographs should be of the same magnification. The subject should be centred in clinical photographs. Crop out extraneous material and background. Each figure should have a separate, detailed, fully explicit legend; all sections of the figure and all abbreviations and symbols used should be clearly defined. Colour illustrations will be charged to the authors. Details of Style. DRUG NAMES: Use generic names only on referring to drugs, followed in parentheses after first mention by a commonly used variant generic. ABBREVIATIONS. Follow the CBE Style Manual (available from the Council of Biology Editors, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA) or other standard sources. For abbreviations of journal names, refer to List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus (available from the Superintendent f Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, USA, DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 83-267; ISSN 0093-3821). References. References are to be arranged alphabetically and numbered and cited in the text by number. The reference section should be typed double-spaced at the end of the text, following the sample formats given below. Journal titles should be abbreviated according to the abbreviations approved by Index Medicus. All single word journal titles should be spelled out. Complete information should be given for each reference, including titles of journal articles, names of all authors and editors, and inclusive pagination. It is the author's responsibility to verify references from the original sources. Journal article 1. Stratford PW, Miserfi D, Ogilvie R, Binkley J, Wuori J. Assessing the responsiveness of Five KT1000 knee arthrometer measures used to evaluate anterior laxity at the knee joint. Clin J Sport Med 1991; 1L: 225-8. Book 2. Antonaccio MJ. Cardiovascular Pharmacology. New York: Raven Press, 1990. Chapter in a book 3. McGinty JB. Ligament, bone, and nerve complications. In: Sprague NF, III, ed. Complications in Arthroscopy. New York: Raven Press, 1989: 87-106. Proofs and Reprints. Proofs must be returned within 3 days of receipt; late return may cause a delay in publication of an article. Please check text, tables, legends, and references carefully. To expedite publication, page proofs rather than galleys will be sent to the author, and it may therefore be necessary to charge for alterations other than correction of printing errors. Copyright. Copyright on all published articles will be held by the publisher. In view of the present copyright law, it is necessary that each co-author of a submitted manuscript sign a statement expressly transferring copyright in the event the paper is published in the journal. A copyright transfer form will be sent to the corresponding author by the office of the Editors-in-Chief when receipt of a manuscript is acknowledged. Instructions for Electronic Manuscript Submission. Once the paper has been accepted for publication you will be required to submit an electronic version which matches the accepted paper version. The preferred storage medium is a 31/2 inch disk in an MS-WORD compatible format. Files should be submitted in one of the following standard word processing formats: Microsoft Word (preferred), WordPerfect, WordStar, or XY-Write. Each submitted disk must be clearly labelled with the name of the author, item title, journal title, type of equipment used to generate the disk, word processing program (including version number), and file names used. The file submitted on disk must be the final corrected version of the manuscript and must agree with the final accepted version of the submitted paper manuscript. The disk submitted should contain only the final version of the manuscript. Please follow the general instructions on style/arrangement and, in particular, the reference style as given. Note, however, that while the paper version of the manuscript must be presented in the traditional triple spaced format, the electronic version must be typeset and should not contain any extraneous formatting instructions. For example: Use hard carriage returns only at the end of paragraphs and display lines (e.g., titles, subheadings). Please observe the following conventions concerning dashes: Use a single hyphen with a space before it for a minus sign, use a double hyphen (with space before and after) to indicate a ‘long dash' in text, and a triple hyphen (with no extra space) to indicate a range of numbers (e.g. ‘23---45'). Illustrations and tables will be handled conventionally. However, figure and table legends should be included at the end of the electronic file. Non-standard characters (Greek letters, mathematical symbols, etc.) should be coded consistently throughout the text. Please make a list of such characters and provide a listing of the codes used.
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