Socio-demographic determinants and impact on academic performance of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school children in Benin City, Nigeria.
AbstractBackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects children worldwide. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the socio-demographic associates of this important childhood condition.
Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted between February and August 2006 among 1473 public primary school pupils aged 6 to 12 years, selected randomly among pupils drawn from Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. The subjects were screened using Disruptive Behaviour Disorder (DBD) Rating Scale to identify children with ADHD symptoms. Identified subjects were further evaluated with questionnaires to ensure that they met the other explicit non-symptom criteria contained in the DSM-IV manual, such as functional impairments. Children who were confirmed to have ADHD were compared with randomly selected
controls to determine the association, if any, between the prevalence of the condition and some sociodemographic characteristics.
Results: The prevalence of ADHD was 7.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ADHD amongst the different age cohorts. No significant association was found between the prevalence of ADHD and socioeconomic background, size of family, age of parents and
characteristics of the child’s primary caregiver. The children with ADHD had significantly lower school aggregate than that of selected control (Mean aggregate score of 51.7+16.1% versus 63.7+ 16.5%,p<0.001).
Conclusion: The prevalence of ADHD in this study is relatively high. Community screening under the umbrella of the School Health Programme is required. Appropriate medications, educational support and psychotherapy when incorporated in the national health system will go a long way in redirecting affected children’s developmental lives.