Reliability of FAMACHA© chart for the evaluation of anaemia in goats in and around Maiduguri
The reliability of FAMACHA© chart for identifying anaemic goats was compared with Packed Cell Volume (PCV). The colour of the lower eyelids was graded with FAMACHA© chart based on FAMACHA© scores (FS) of 1-5. The animals were scored from severely anaemic (white or FS 5) through moderately anaemic (pink or FS 3) to non-anaemic (red or FS 1). The prevalence of anaemia in the animals was also determined. This study was done to control death of animals from anaemia by the use of FAMACHA© chart, a method which does not need laboratory analysis and can be used by the illiterate with minimal training. A total of 415 goats were used for the study. Blood samples were collected for determination of PCV. Data for both FS and PCV were evaluated using two separate cut off points for each sample (values of FS 4 and 5 or FS 5 and PCV values of ≤ 19% or ≤ 15 %), to determine anaemic animals. The FAMACHA© Score of the evaluated goats was normally distributed, with FS 3 occurring most frequently (34.5%), whilst, the least was FS 1 (5.3%). There was a high negative correlation between FS and PCV (r = -0.69, P < 0.02). The sensitivity of FS was high (64%) when FS 5 and PCV ≤ 19%, were used to determine anaemia, but when FS 4&5 and PCV ≤ 15% were used, the sensitivity decreased to 22%. Thus, it was concluded that FAMACHA© scores of 5 gave the most reliable indicator of anaemia in goats, coinciding with the PCV values of ≤ 19%. A high Likelihood Ratio of 22 was recorded in this study. Indicating that FS will be positive for anaemia 22 times in anaemic animals than in non anaemic animals.
Keywords: Anaemia, FAMACHA© chart, Goat, Reliability, Sensitivity