Brucella infection in migratory cattle herds in Jigawa State Nigeria: A cross sectional study
A cross sectional study on Brucella infection was carried out in Jigawa State in order to evaluate seroprevalence and transmission exposure factors among migratory cattle herds. A total of 1,810 cattle of different ages and sexes were systematically selected from 147 herds across four agricultural zones in the State and screened using Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) while closed ended questionnaire was used to evaluate exposure factors. From the results out of the 1,810 (serum samples) (3.37%) tested positive. Females showed higher seropositivity (3.6%) to the infection, compared to males (2.7%). Cattle of age 4-5 years had the highest prevalence (7%), compared to 3-4 years (4.5%), 2-3years (2%), 1-2years (0.8%), with no positive reactor among cattle of less than one year (0%). Seropositive animals according to the locations was found to be highest in Zone III (5.2%), followed by Zone IV (3.9%) and Zone I (2.4%), and least in Zone II (1.5%). A higher herd prevalence was recorded in Zone III (29%), followed by Zone IV (21%) and Zone I (17%), with lowest in Zone II (12%). The overall herd prevalence was 20.4%. There was association between herds that do not practice quarantine, raise multiple species, share communal pastures and water points with Brucella infection (P< 0.05) and they are more likely to acquire the infection as indicated by odds ratio. In conclusion the results have indicated that Brucella infection exists in the studied herds and some exposure factors were identified. It is hereby recommended that herd owners should practice quarantine of newly purchased animals, avoid herding multiple species of animals together, carryout routine testing and minimize contacts at grazing and water points.
Keywords: Brucella, Cattle herds, Exposure factors, Jigawa State, SAT, Seroprevalence, Serum