The dynamics of anticoccidial drug usage in poultry within Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria

  • C.J. Okonkwo
  • E.C. Uwalaka


Coccidiosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases of poultry worldwide. Chemotherapy remains the principal means to control this disease albeit the increasing problems of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the drug usage of anticoccidials in the six communities of Umuahia, Abia state. Data such as type, class and composition of drugs used, level and frequency of usage, route of
administration and anticoccidial program adopted by different farms were collected from 85 poultry farms within the study region. Results showed that the ionophores anticoccidials were not in use whereas the sulphonamides constituted the bulk of the drugs used (79.3%). Others were; thiamine analogue (21.1%), aminopyrimidine (33.7%), guanidine (14.4%), pyrimidine derivative (15.1%) and nitroimidazol (8.6%). Most of the drugs (>60) contained vitamin A and K. The most popular drug combinations were sulphaquinoxaline and diveradine with vitamin A and K (Embazine Forte) among thirteen trade-marked drugs under use. Close to 25.0% of farms practiced shuttle program and the rest continuous program of administration. Anticoccidials were administered through in-water medication for prophylactic and therapeutic use, and for both in the different farm applications in 43.5, 27.7 and 31.8 (%) respectively. The lack of usage of the ionophores and the massive use of sulphonamides coupled with low application of the right anticoccidial programs in this region presents a serious danger of anticoccidial resistance with consequent high prevalence of the disease.

Keywords: Anticoccidials, Coccidiosis, Drug resistance, Ionophores, Poultry, Sulphonamides


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eISSN: 1595-093X
print ISSN: 1595-093X