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Rectal temperature and body surface temperature rhythm in Red Sokoto goats infected with <i>Trypanosoma evansi</i> during the rainy season

A.A. Adeiza
Y.A. Umar
P.A. Vantsawa


There are limited studies on circadian rhythmicity in farm animals affected by protozoan diseases. The rectal temperature (RT) and body  surface temperature (BST) rhythmic patterns in experimental Trypanosoma evansi-infected Red Sokoto goats (T. evansiinfected RSG) July  – September were evaluated. Five goats were assigned to each experimental group, with group I as the negative control (CRSG), while  animals in group II were individually infected with about 2.0x106 /2ml T. evansi-inoculum. Temperature reaction patterns were monitored  by digital clinical and infrared thermometry. The RT and BST of goats, the ambient temperature (AT) and relative humidity  (RH) inside the pen were measured at 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 hours (GMT+1) three times a week for 12 weeks. The AT had maximum,  minimum and mean values of 27.0°C, 24.2°C and 25.6±0.26°C, respectively, while RH had maximum, minimum and mean values of 94.5%, 53.6% and 80.5±11.5%, respectively. Results obtained, via the application of a single Cosinor procedure showed that the RT and BST  exhibited daily rhythmicity in both groups with the pattern distorted in T. evansi-infected RSG which showed an ascent from the 5th to  the 10th week. The rhythmic characteristic of RT of the T. evansi-infected RSG showed that the mesor and amplitude were higher (p˂0.05)  than those recorded for CRSG. Both groups showed no difference (p˃0.05) in acrophase. The eye region in both groups showed  the highest BST, while the coronary band had the lowest. The result, for the first time, reported rhythmicity of RT and BST in T. evansi- infected goats under tropical conditions. The results obtained from our study may be useful for the early screening, diagnosis, treatment  and prevention of protozoan diseases.  

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eISSN: 2315-6201
print ISSN: 1595-093X