Antibacterial and haematological activity of Moringa oleifera aqueous seed extract in Wistar albino rats
The phytochemical, antibacterial and haematologic activity of aqueous seed extract of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) were evaluated. Phytochemicals such as tannins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones and flavonoids in low, moderate and high concentrations were present in the seeds. The extract exhibited significant In vitro antibacterial and In vivo haematologic effects. Bacterial isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were inhibited. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract for all the sensitive isolates is 100 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml as minimum bactericidal concentration of the extract on Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The extract administered per os at 100-400 mg / kg body weight significantly (P<0.05) increased, neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocytes counts at second and third week of administration except for lymphocyte that significantly (P<0.05) decreased throughout the period of administration when compared to the rats in control group. The study supports the folkloric application of Moringa oleifera seed extract in the management of various forms of bacterial infection, anaemia and immuno – modulation in north eastern Nigeria.
Keywords: Antibacterial effect, Haematology, Moringa olifera, Phytochemical analysis, Wistar albino rats.