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Green and Blue Water Footprints of Major Crops in the Wami/Ruvu Basin, Tanzania: Implications for Water Scarcity and Sustainability

Benson HM Lazaro
Martine M Hagai
Rubhera RAM Mato


Accurate estimation of the blue and green water requirements of the various crops cultivated in a water basin is essential for planning specific plant/crop irrigation schedules. In this study, the crop water requirements of the major crops grown in the Wami/Ruvu basin were determined using the FAO-CROPWAT model based on meteorological parameters: monthly maximum and minimum temperature, wind speed, mean relative humidity, sunshine hours, rainfall data, and effective rainfall for 23 hydro-meteorological stations distributed in the study area. The studied crops are rice, maize, beans, tomatoes, and sugarcane. The crop reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and actual evapotranspiration (ETc) for each crop were determined using crop coefficients (Kc) of various growth stages of crops. The results indicated that the total annual reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was 1604 mm, whereas an average ETo per month was 134 mm. The highest total irrigation water requirements were recorded in sugarcane, followed by rice, while the lowest water requirements were observed in beans and tomatoes. The results presented in this study may facilitate plant-specific water irrigation implementation and maximize crop production while conserving the environment.

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eISSN: 2507-7961
print ISSN: 0856-1761