Quantification of starch physicochemical characteristics in a cassava segregating population

  • E Nuwamanya
  • Y Baguma
  • RS Kawuki
  • PR Rubaihayo
Keywords: Amylose, cassava starch, Manihot esculenta, protein, reducing sugar

Abstract

Culinary cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) qualities that make a variety popular are a function of starch physicochemical properties. Hence, in response to inferior root qualities in some released cassava varieties in Uganda compared to the local germplasm, a study was undertaken to examine: (i) starch physicochemical characteristics in both introduced and local varieties; and (ii) the variation in the starch properties of their F1 progenies. The local varieties included Bao, Nyaraboke, Kakwale, and Bamunanika; and the introduced genotypes SE/95/00036,
NASE 10, NASE 12, TME 5, and TME 14. Of the generated 7000 F1 seedlings, 1077 seedlings were selected, cloned (6-8 plants per genotype) and established in a single-row trial. Root samples were collected per clone and examined for starch physicochemical properties. Considerable variations were observed in the F1 families compared to the parental lines with weak correlations in most starch properties (r < 0.25). Amylose content ranged from 10 to 25%, with the amylose: amylopectin ratio between 1:3 and 1:9. Among the F1 families, solubility and swelling power ranged from 1-15g100g-1 and 40-140g100 g-1 starch at 60oC, respectively. In the parents, it ranged between 1.3-8.6 and 50-67g100g-1 starch at 60oC, respectively. Fresh root starch yield ranged from 18 to 34%,
with dry matter content varying from 19-47% in both the F1 families and the parents. Ash and lipid content varied among the F1 families and parents with ranges 0.05-0.29% for ash and 0.1-0.32% for lipids. In both the parents and the F1 families, the reducing sugar and protein content ranged between 0.7-1.7 and 0.23-0.43%, respectively. These findings demonstrate: (i) existence of considerable genetic variations in starch physicochemical properties in both local and introduced cassava genotypes and their progenies, and (ii) potential utilisation of
cassava starches for various applications based on the inherent differences in physicochemical characteristics.
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eISSN: 2072-6589
print ISSN: 1021-9730