General Instructions. Authors are strictly advised to read this section ( or carefully and adhere to the instructions provided prior to submitting their manuscripts to African Crop Science Journal, to avoid inconveniences.  Submit your manuscript electronically to: The Secretariat, African Crop Science Journal, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda; Email:, and The Journal is identified by ISSN  1021- 9730/2015 (Print) and eISSN  2072-6589/2015 (Online). Papers published in the Journal should be based on original research or continuation of previous studies that are reproducible. Papers for the Review and Forum Sections should bear international relevance. For papers in English, as much as possible stick to UK English. 


Manuscripts should be presented on 8 1/2 x 11 inches (216 x 279 mm) paper, double-spaced, with wide margins (1 inch) and line-numbered where possible. For the entire text of the manuscript, use font Times New Roman, size 12. Complex mathematical equations should be presented using Microsoft friendly software. Do not use web-linked graphically designed equations, tables, graphs or other illustrations.


Text: Should appear in the following order: Title, Authors’ names and addresses, Corresponding author’s email, Abstract, Key words, Introduction, Materials and Methods or Methodology, Results, Discussion (or Results and Discussion), Conclusion, Acknowledgement, References and Illustrations (Tables, Figures, maps, plates/photos, etc.). Each illustration should be numbered serially as a separate set.  For the Review and Forum-targeted manuscripts, variance to the above structure is acceptable.


Main section headings in the manuscript should be bolded, centred and of uppercase letters. Do not underline the title or section headings. Minimise use of scientific names in the Title. Subsections (also bolded) may be included and only the first letter of the subsection should be capitalised. All sections in the manuscript should be written in a narrative, focusing on the message enshrined in the objective. Use of bullets is extremely discouraged.


Use SI units of measurement, and italicise all non-words (except names) and scientific names. Use numerals before standard units of measurements, e.g. 3 g, 9 days, 36 hr, 50 kg ha-1, metric tonnes and t.  Use words for numbers one to nine, and numerals for larger numbers, especially in the text. For commonly used terms and abbreviations, consult the latest edition of Council of Biological Editors. Non-standard abbreviations should be avoided, and where used, should be explained at their first mention.


Below is the structure of a typical research paper to be submitted to African Crop Science Journal. Note that structural variations may be accepted for manuscripts with other forms of focus.


Title: Should be brief but sufficient to represent the scope of the objective(s) and overall content of the paper. A clear link should be evident between the title, objective and conclusions. As much as possible, scientific names should be replaced with common names, and the former should be placed in keywords.


Authors’ names: Should appear below the title and should be followed by their respective address. Initials should be placed before the last/surname and the last and second last co-author names should be separated by “and”. Corresponding author’s email should also be provided e.g. Corresponding author:


Abstract: Should be limited to not more than 250 words, and should contain salient features of a typical scientific research paper, namely a background statement, objective, key elements of Materials and Methods, main results and conclusion. This section should be complete and particularly factual with results sufficiently supported by empirical data. Where possible, manuscripts in English should be accompanied by a French translation and vice-versa.


Key words: Select 5-6 important words from the Abstract, excluding those in the title. These words are useful for retrieval of the paper from various repositories. Separate the words using commas and arrange them alphabetically.


Running title: Suggest a running title; the short form of the manuscript title.


Introduction: Include crisp information in the form of paragraphs: background to the study, the problem of concern, significance/rationale, what exists in literature, the specific gaps, objective of study (often not more than one). Use current journal literature where applicable. This section should not exceed two pages of double spaced text.


Materials and Methods  or Methodology: This section should be written as a narrative story. It should be informative enough to enable readers to interpret the results objectively or use the methods for a similar study, without requiring further clarifications. As such, avoid vague or confusing statements. Particular attention should be paid to the study factors/treatments and their structure, design, analysis and other statistical considerations. The sequence of implementation of the study should be followed strictly.  Please note that the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) is unacceptable for separation of means for papers to be published in this Journal.  For cases where multiple procedures and models exist, the choice of one may need justification. In such cases, citations of credible and latest sources of relevant information should be included. In all cases, please cite the developer and not the user of a procedure.


Results: Should be concise along with statistical tools, where applicable, to enable readers make factual inferences. Avoid narrative texts that reproduce information already presented in illustrations.  Data should be presented only in one form and this section should have no citation.


Discussion: This section may be combined with Results, but generally should be separate. It is an exclusively explanation section and should not be a reproduction of the contents of the Results section.  Authors must discuss their results articulately first before rushing to literature to substitute for their much needed professional contributions. Indicate clearly the significance and implications of the results obtained, in the context of the answers expected against the study objectives, and subsequently, how they auger with the existing literature on the subject. Personal non-data-derived author opinions and prejudices should be strictly avoided. Citations should preferably consist of current literature and largely from peer reviewed journals.


Acknowledgement: Financial contributors, pre-paper reviews, etc. should be acknowledged. Do not include friends and family members; these suite best in project reports.


References: Use of reference management software is recommended for this section, to minimize confusion and inconsistencies. The African Crop Science Journal uses the Harvard citation style. Only published articles (journals and proceedings) or books may be cited. In addition, articles with evidence of official acceptance by journals for publication are considered as “In press” and are citable. Some are sometimes verifiable on journal websites. Articles referred to as “In press” should not be dated older than one year relative to the time when the current manuscript is being submitted. Papers presented at conferences or workshops dating two years or more without being published should not be cited. All author names should bear their initials after the surname or last name of each author or co-author, but separated by a comma.  Examples of reference listing:


For journals list as:


Nyadanu, D., Dapaah, H. and Agyekum,  A.D.  2014.  Resistance  to  post-harvest  microbial rot in yam:  Integration of genotype  and  storage   methods.   African Crop Science Journal22(2):89 - 95.


For proceedings list as:


Skenjana, N.L. and Kubheka, B.P. 2013. Can Vermicompost be used as medium amendment for Swiss chard seedling production? African Crop Science Conference Proceedings  11: 79  -  85.




Kibunja, N.C. 1985. Agricultural residues as rhizobia carriers in Kenya. In: Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Africa. Proceedings of the First AABNF Conference, Nairobi Kenya. H Ssali and S.O. Keya (Eds.). Matianum Press Consultants, Nairobi. pp.160-172.


For books list as:


DeVries, J. and Toenniessen, G. 2001. Securing the Harvest: Biotechnology, Breeding and Seed Systems for African Crops.  The Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, UK. 208pp.


For online publications list as (include DOI where available):


Somayanda, M., Morete, I., Ismail, J.M., Rainer, S., Johnson, S. 2013. Zn uptake, translocation, and grain Zn loading in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes selected for Zn deficiency tolerance and high grain Zn. Journal of Experimental Botany. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert118.




Zachary, G.P. 2008.   Africa plays the rice card.  Foreign Policy.  May/June 2008 (web-exclusive story). id=4306. Accessed 26 August 2008.


For thesis list as:


Abebe, G. 2012. Soil characterisation and evaluation of slow release urea fertilizer rates on yield traits and grain yields of wheat and Teff on vertisols of Jamma district of South Wollo Zone, Amhara Region. M.Sc. Thesis. Haremaya University, Ethiopia. 72pp.

For others:


Personal communication may be cited only in the text and not listed in the Reference section. Provide name, title, institution or organisation (address), and year. Only top professionals/experts on the subject are considered for “personal communication”.


In very rare cases, critical unpublished materials may be accepted for cited only in the text.


There may be cases of articles not easily accessible, particularly electronically. In such cases use of “as cited by” could be acceptable, but only the citer’s article is listed in the Reference section of the manuscript.


Illustrations:  All illustrations (Tables, Figures, maps, photos, drawings, etc.) and information about them should be complete to make them independent of the main manuscript text. Captions should be brief, but should adequately describe contents, in some cases including the name of the nearest city and host country. The word Table should be in uppercase letters, and should be numbered with Arabic numerals. Figure captions should be typed on a separate sheet of paper. In the text, spell out the word Figure but abbreviate it to Fig. within the sentence. Within the Tables, the first letter of the identifiers of the columns and row rows should be in upper-case. Also, footnotes are designated with superscript lowercase letters.


Graphs should not be in boxes and X and Y axes should be marked clearly. Photographs should be extremely vital to impact readers about, for nstance, a new disease symptom or effect of a treatment. Good photographs replace a great deal of text and not vice-versa. Illustrations should permit adjustment of size at least up to 50%. Use of coloured illustrations is encouraged for our online publication. However, in the case of hardcopy production (often on order), authors may be advised to cater for the extra costs involved.


Proof reading:  Galley proofs will normally be sent to the author for approval for final publication.


Style and format: Authors are advised to consult the most recent issue of the African Crop Science Journal at or Do not use columns for the entire text.


Review system:  The Journal appoints two active researchers or experts on the subject of the manuscript. Reviews are anonymous; however, the names and addresses of the authors are kept on the manuscript for reviewers and authors to widen their future partnerships. Whenever contrasts of opinion arise between the two reviewers, a third reviewer is appointed or the editorial committee makes a decision based on the intensity of the review reports from the both reviewers. The African Crop Science Journal leverages from the enormous global pool of experts to peer review manuscripts through Google Scholar.


Paper revision: An author receiving reviewers’ comments for revision or correction should submit the revised manuscript in accordance with the deadlines provided by the Editor. Longer intervals may lead the manuscript being treated as a new submission. Authors are supposed to return the revised version of the paper along with the “comment-by-response” rebuttal sheet.


Quality control policy and conflict resolution: African Crop Science Journal operates a zero-tolerance policy to research and publication misconduct (including plagiarism, falsification, cheating and other forms of ethical misconduct). Offenders are alerted and barred from subsequent publication with the Journal, unless they provide satisfactory rebuttals. We use the two-anonymous tire peer reviewer system, and adopt a third one in case of conflicting review reports. We access global expertise for peer reviewers for various disciplines. This is very helpful in resolving local conflicts within our limited and fairly slow review system. Ultimately, the editorial committee evaluates the reviewers’ reports for objectivity and adequacy and neutrality, and the outcome, in part is a basis for further considerations/re-appointment of reviewers for other engagements. Feedback from the journal readership, authors, reviewers and International Editorial Advisory Board constitutes key input into the journal’s quality improvement.

Business models: The African Crop Science Journal is a non-profit publication arm of the African crop science Society. It entirely depends on payments for publication fees by authors for accepted papers. Occasionally, however, the Journal Secretariat is contracted to publish proceedings and books for other organisations.

Publication charge


At the 11th African Crop Science Society conference and Annual General Meeting (2013) at Entebbe in Uganda, the Governing Council of the Society approved modest Journal publication fees per accepted paper in the order of US$150.0 for non-Society members, and US$100.00 for members. 

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2072-6589
print ISSN: 1021-9730