Acid-base and redox reactions on submicro level: Misconceptions and challenge
From experiences all over the world we know that formulae and chemical equations are memorized very often or are equalized by counting the number of “atoms on the left and right side of the equation”. Looking to our Chemical triangle lecturers, students are jumping from the Macro level just to the Symbolic level. If we would go first from the Macro level to the Submicro level and explain chemical reactions with involved atoms, ions and molecules, then learners would understand chemistry more successfully. With a special questionnaire we are investigating the ability of university students and chemistry teachers in Indonesia, Tanzania and Germany to interpret given chemical equations with involved particles. We could find that a lot of misconceptions are present and should be challenged.