On What Foundation is Africa Building its Science and Technology Base?: Africa\'s Participation in TIMSS-2003
In 2003, six African countries - Ghana Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Botswana and South Africa - participated in an international assessment programme in science and mathematics, called the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The study examined the performance of eighth graders in mathematics and science as well as the contextual factors that could have influenced the performance. Analyses of the data indicated that in general the African countries performed poorly. Countries in the north of Africa performed significantly better than those in sub-Saharan Africa. Generally they all performed poorly on items that involved solving non routine problems and reasoning. Examination of the context for learning science and mathematics revealed several weaknesses in the curricula of the participating African countries. It indicated that majority of the students did not have the opportunity to learn a substantial proportion of the content assessed in the TIMSS even though these were part of their intended curricula. The least use of technology (i.e. calculators and computers) in the curricula was also reported by the African countries. Recommendations are made for African governments to pay attention to the teaching of science and mathematics in the primary and secondary schools. The results of the study suggest the need to carry out an indebt examination to identify the dimensions of the problem for information that would be helpful in policy decisions to address the issue across the continent.
African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 3 2005: pp. 1-8
License agreement and author copyright
AJESMS does not require authors to assign copyright of their published original research papers to the journal. Articles are published under a CC BY license(Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The CC BY license allows for maximum dissemination and re-use of open access materials and is preferred by many research funding bodies. Under this license users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit) and remix (adapt) the contribution including for commercial purposes, providing they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author (read full legal code).
Availability of materials and data
An inherent principle of publication is that others should be able to replicate and build upon the authors' published claims. Therefore, a condition of publication in AJESMS is that authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers without undue qualifications in material transfer agreements. Any restrictions on the availability of materials or information must be disclosed to the publishing team at the time of submission. Supporting data must be made available to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at the time of submission for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript. Reviewers may be asked to comment on the terms of access to materials, methods and/or data sets; AJESMS reserves the right to refuse publication in cases where authors do not provide adequate assurances that they can comply with the publication's requirements for sharing materials.
After publication, readers who encounter refusal by the authors to comply with these policies should contact the AJESMS publishing team. In cases where we are unable to resolve a complaint, the matter may be referred to the authors' funding institution and/or a formal statement of correction may be published, attached online to the publication, stating that readers have been unable to obtain necessary materials to replicate the findings.
A condition of publication AJESMS is that authors make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to others without preconditions.
Datasets must be made freely available to readers from the date of publication, and must be provided to Editorial Board Members and reviewers at submission, for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript.