Effect of administration of rice bran oil emulsion beverages on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level

  • Refdanita Refdanita
  • E. Damayanthi
  • C.M. Dwiriani
  • C. Sumantri
  • A.T. Effendi
  • A. Yulyana
  • E. Mugiyanto
Keywords: TNF-α, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, nutritional intake, rice bran oil


Rice bran oil emulsion beverage is a functional food rich in antioxidants and beneficial for human health, particularly to prevent metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined by a waist circumference of > 90 cm and two additional criteria out of five, namely triglycerides (TG) > 150 mg/dL, HDL-C < 40 mg/dL, and/or 140/90 mmHg, blood pressure, and fasting blood sugar of 100 mg / dL. This research aimed to examine the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after the intervention of taking rice bran emulsion and determine the parameter shifted on metabolic syndrome. This study was a parallel-group, double-blind study with randomized controlled trials. The subjects were divided into two groups: treatment and control. The first group (n=19) received two glasses of rice bran emulsion per day for four weeks, while the control group (n=17) received two glasses of placebo per day for four weeks. Different intakes of fat, iron, and vitamin B1 were present in the control group before and after the intervention (p=0.05). The data were analyzed using independent T-test samples against differences for each group from before and after interventions. The formulation of rice bran emulsion was prepared using bran oil, water, sugar ester, CMC, sucralose, salt, and flavor. The study demonstrated that TNF-α levels in both groups decreased from 6.8 ± 7.3 to 4.7 ± 0.6 (pg/dL) but were not significant (p>0.05). Nutrition changes influenced the intakes of fat, iron, and vitamin B1 but did not influence metabolic syndrome parameters of the treatment group. The level of nutritional adequacy-fat, iron and vitamin B1 pre-and post-intervention in both groups were significantly different. In conclusion, the levels of serum TNF-α on the treatment group had a decrease than those in the control group; however, it is not significant. Further study needs to be done to verify this finding.


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1684-5374
print ISSN: 1684-5358