Manuscripts for peer review will be accepted for consideration on condition that they are submitted exclusively to the African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND). All materials submitted for publication must be typed in double line space on numbered pages and should conform to the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. A word count excluding abstracts and references must be given in all submissions. Manuscripts must be submitted electronically ONLY [as MS Word document attachment] via email. Every author should be prepared to submit a copy of his or her passport- size photograph electronically (via email) as attachments. The photos should be of a good resolution.

Editorial address to which manuscripts should be sent:
The Editor-in-Chief, AJFAND
E-mail: OR

The corresponding author should email a consent letter to the Editor-in-Chief before the manuscript goes for publication. The corresponding author should ensure that the details of the co-authors are provided as follows: names, qualifications, designation and current address (es) including email. Credit for authorship requires substantial contributions to: (a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data (b) the drafting of the article or critical revision for important intellectual content and (c) final approval of the version to be published. Please note that only electronic correspondence will be responded to.

Copies of related papers already published and any non-standard questionnaires used should be submitted. This requirement is important where details of study methods are published elsewhere or when the manuscript is part of a series e.g. part 2 of a series where part 1 has been published elsewhere.


Title page: This page will have the title of the paper; which is brief, reflects the contents of the paper and relevant to AJFAND topics. This page will also have complete author(s) name(s) and institutional affiliation.

Abstract: An abstract of between 300-400 words must be included. For French speaking authors who may not wish to translate their entire paper into English, we require 2 abstracts- one in English and another in French. The paper can be in French. For Short communications and Letters to the editor, the abstract should be in prose form. Key words should be between 8 and 10 and added at the bottom of the abstract in reviews and original articles.

Main body: Word count should be between 3000 and 4000 words for original articles and reviews. Short communication word count should not exceed 1000 words, and Letters to the editor should not exceed 500 words. Original articles should present data and information from original research. Reviews must be critical analyses of the subjects reviewed, giving the current and balanced view of all the issues, for instance controversies. Reviews should be contributed by authorities and experts in their respective fields. The message carried in both reviews and original articles must be clear, succinct and of significance. Short communications should focus on any interesting findings/news an author wishes to convey to the readers of AJFAND.

The main body should have separate and clearly marked subtitles: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion (must be included), Acknowledgements (where necessary; include sponsor of the study) and References. Results and Discussion should be combined. Include any recommendations in the Conclusion.

Figures, Tables and Illustrations: Original articles should have a maximum of eight tables at the end of the text with the table heading/title above each table. Figures are within the text with the heading below the figure. Short communication and Letters to the editor should contain no more than one illustration.

Illustrations should be carefully chosen and only those that make a valid point in the construction of the article will be used. Half tone figures should be submitted as photographs/images

Symbols and numbering should be clear and large enough to remain legible after reduction to fit the width of a single column. Legends for illustrations should be presented separately and not as part of the illustration. Definitions of any abbreviations that appear on figures and tables should also be provided.

References: A maximum of 40 references is accepted for both review and original articles. Letters to the editor should contain no more than five references. In-text citation begins in the introduction section and references should be in chronological order (see published articles on AJFAND website,
The AJFAND requires use of the number system of referencing. All references, whether quoted directly, paraphrased ideas (Indirect quotation) or acknowledging information obtained from another writer or source, should be documented within the text by numbering [in square brackets]. Try as much as possible to put reference numbers, boxed [ ], at the end of the sentence.



In-text citation
A 1999 United Nations study found increasing incidence of obesity in all developing regions [1].

End reference

  1. Gardner MN, Halweil AO, Lincoln NN, Guba EG, Parry J and JM Nono Introduction to Ophthalmology. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1989: 188-194.

Note: Consistency and accuracy in referencing is critical and it is the responsibility of the author to ensure this. We encourage checking and double-checking.

Article/Chapter in a book
Use the word “In” before the name of the editors, use editor (s) initials after the name (s).The year should appear at the end followed by a semicolon, the chapter (in bold), full colon and then page numbers, for example, 1986; 6: 51-53

In-text citation
Over 50 % of the absolute poor in developing countries are found in rural areas [2]. Confirming that poverty still remains a rural phenomenon.

End reference

  1. Spencer N Poverty and Child Health in Less Developed Countries. In: Odoro JM and EM Kimani (Eds). Poverty and Child Health. Oxford, UK and New York, NY: Radcliffe Press, 1996: 74-94.

Articles from journals, magazines and newspapers
Titles of journals or newspapers should be in italics and abbreviated where possible (e.g. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry presented as J. Agric. Food. Chem). The title of the published article should not be underlined.
Newspaper or Wikipedia citations are not accepted for peer reviewed scholarly articles.

In-Text citation
Different standards of food safety between importers and exporters may lead to concerns about food safety of imported food [3].

End reference
3. Lock G and S Jongelin Maximizing Return Rates in School Based Research. Afric. J. Food. Nutri. Sci. 1994; 1: 13-14

The title source and journal abbreviations should conform to those in (Index Medicus), year, volume and inclusive page numbers. Personal communications, unpublished data and manuscripts “in preparation” or “submitted for publication” are unacceptable.

Numbers one to ten are spelt in full unless in conjunction with units (eg 2 ml, 3 mm); numbers above ten appear as 11, 101, 1001. Type out the word percent when the number is spelt out, but use the % symbol when using numbers.
Note that in quoting scientific names, the genus takes a capital letter and the species a small letter. Such names are either underlined or italicized. Foreign words and phrases should not be underlined.

Abbreviations and acronyms can be used but expanded the first time. Example: body mass index (BMI); thereafter the abbreviation/acronym can be used throughout the paper.

Authors should refrain from using acronyms, abbreviations or digits at the beginning of sentences. Also e.g., etc, i.e. are written in full (for example, and others, that is).

Use of first person (I, me, we, us, our) should be avoided.

Consistency in the type of English used (either American or imperial) is important. For example, if you begin with the word colour (Imperial) keep it consistent and do not divert to the word color (American) and vice versa. Same to behaviour/behavior, favour/favor and so on.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 1684-5374
print ISSN: 1684-5358