Household food security determinants and nutritional status of inhabitants of a peri-urban community: a case study in the Volta region of Ghana
Food shortages and malnutrition widely persist and continue to be rural peculiarities across the sub-region. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a peri-urban community of Dzodze in the Volta region to ascertain the level of food security as well as the nutritional status of the inhabitants using a random sampling technique. This community-based comparative cross-sectional study conducted from May to July 2018 adopted a multistage random sampling and selected 105 households. Sociodemographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Chi-square, Cramer’s-V, and Pearson’s correlations models were used to assess the association of socio-demographic, anthropometric and food frequency data while the Logit model, FSI, HCR were used to measure food security. Over half of the sample (59.6%) were in the normal range of BMI which implied good nutritional status. Remarkably, a majority of those in this normal BMI range 81 (77%) were female. Women aged 41years and above constituted a large portion of study participants (54.3%) of which many 43 (41%) were married. Just 4.8% of this group said they were both separated and cohabited with their partners non-customarily. Data on the frequency of food intake by the community revealed that, a majority of 63.4% of the respondents ate three times a day. Most of the people (77.2%, 68.7%, and 86.9%) ate breakfast, lunch, and supper, respectively, daily over a week. The fallouts from the work showed majority (71.5%) of the respondents were food secure and the remaining (about 28.5%) were food insecure. Factors such as age, gender, educational level, household size, and age were found to be significant predictors that influenced food security of the peri-urban community according to the logit model used. The smallholder households according to the computed food security index of 1.13 and normal range of BMI were identified to be indices of food security.
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