Persistence of active compounds of essential oils of Clausena anisata (rutaceae) and Plectranthus glandulosus (labiateae) used as insecticides on maize grains and flour
Maize occupies an important place in the resolution of food insecurity problems in the sub-Saharan region of Africa. However due to poor post-harvest technologies, more than 35% of annual crop yield is often lost during storage as a consequence of insect attack. While chemical pesticides constitute an efficient tool for reducing these losses, current excessive usage runs the risk of modifying the quality and safety of foods
produced from these grains. The use of essential oils of plant origin for grain storage has been advocated as a non invasive method with limited or no effect on the quality and safety of the grains or their products. This study was carried out as an evidence of bioactivity of two essential oils of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook and Plectranthus glandulosus Hook F. against adults of Tribolium castaneum Herbst and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, which are two important stored product insect pests in
Northern Cameroon. Because of the low persistence of the insecticidal activities of these plants, their essential oils to achieve a complete protection of the stored products must be applied at frequent delays. The present investigation focuses on the occurrence of residues of these oils on treated maize grain and flour. The doses of crude essential oils used to treat adults of S. zeamais and T. castaneum in a contact and inhalation process were their LD99s. After the evaluation of their insecticidal activity the persistence of each essential oil was observed every 2 days till 14 days. After the disappearance of their insecticidal activities, essential oil was re-extracted and their residual compounds were identified from treated grain and flour. The major compounds of C. anisata are, estragole, á-humulene, germacrene D and (E)-nerolidol. In P. glandulosus they are: fenchone, á-terpinolene and piperitenone oxide. After 14 days, only 64.24% of compounds of C. anisata were recovered on treated flour and
55.16% on grains. Concerning P. glandulosus, 48.94% was recovered on grains and 61.23% on flour.
Key woods: Essential oils, persistence, stored products insects
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