The effect of plant growth regulators on callus initiation in wormwood (Artemisia annua L.)
Studies were carried out in the Biotechnology laboratory of Plant Science Department of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria to study the effect of some plant growth regulators on the in vitro initiation of callus using the leaves of Chiyong variety of Artemisia annua. The explants were sterilized and incubated on Murashige and Skoog basal media augmented with varying concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 μm/l of Giberellic acid (GA3), Benzyle amino purine (BAP), Naphthyle acetic acid (NAA),2,4-Dichlrophynoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Indole butyricacid (IBA) and Kinetin (Kin). The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 2 replicates. Low BAP concentration of 0.5 μm/l and a high concentration of NAA of 3.0 μm/l as well as equal concentration of BAP of 1.0 μm/l and IBA of 1.0 μm/l had the least days (7days) to regeneration. For regeneration percent, equal low concentrations of BAP of 0.5 μm/l and NAA of 0.5 μm/l had the highest performance of 94%. However, no significant difference was observed between treatments with respect to vigor. Equal low concentrations of BAP (0.5 μm/l) and (0.5 μm/l) NAA and BAP(1.0 μm/l) combined with IBA(1.5 μm/l) had the highest height. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated significant difference among the treatments compared with the control (P<0.05). Therefore, combined BAP and NAA treatment is an efficient protocol for callus initiation and proliferation. A combination of GA3 and BAP is suitable for shoot initiation from callus using cultures of A. annua.
Keywords: Artemisia annua, in vitro, Nodal cuttings, growth regulators