Prevalence of rotavirus diarrhoea among children under five years in Kaduna state, Nigeria
Rotavirus (RV) is a major etiological agent of acute infantile gastroenteritis and is associated with 20%-25% of diarrhoea cases in infants. Nigeria continues to be among the first five countries with greatest number of RV disease associated deaths per year. From September 2013-August 2014, 467 stool samples were collected from children under 5 years of age in Kaduna State, Nigeria and analysed for RV antigen using ELISA. An overall RV prevalence of 31.0% (143/467) was obtained with the infection occurring throughout the study period. Children from Kachia LGA had the highest prevalence of 53.8% (28/52), while children from Kagarko LGA had the lowest prevalence of 21.0% (10/74). The difference was significant (P=0.019). Highest prevalence of RV was recorded in March (75.0%:3/4) and the least in July (11.5%:3/26) with significant difference (P=0.003). Female children had highest prevalence of 32.1% (79/246) compared to male children (29.9%:66/221) with a non-significance difference (P=0.530). Children within 25-36 months had the highest prevalence of 36.4% (28/77), while children 49-60 months had the lowest prevalence of 17.6% (6/34) with no significant difference (P=0.517). The difference observed was not significant (P=0.477). The result showed no significant difference between the presence of RV infection with vomiting, fever, dehydration (P>0.05). The study has revealed that rotavirus remains an important cause of acute diarrhoea in children under five years in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Hence the need for the implemention of the vaccines into the childhood immunization programme in the country.
Key words: Prevalence, Rotavirus, Children, Kaduna State, Nigeria