Assessment of lipid profile in-patients with Nephrotic syndrome in Kano Metropolis

  • S.Y. Isah
  • S.L. Abubakar
  • S.B. Danladi
  • B.A. Gwaram
  • M. Akram
  • J. Nnodim
  • P.A. Okafor
Keywords: Creatinine, Dyslipidemia, Lipoprotein, Nephrotic syndrome, Protein, Urea

Abstract

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a complex kidney disease associated with numerous complications which can subsequently lead to cardiovascular disease among others. This study was aimed at assessing the lipid profile, serum and urinary proteins of patients with Nephrotic syndrome (NS) in Kano metropolis. A total of 50 NS patients and 25  apparently healthy volunteers(controls) were recruited for the study, made up of 32 males and 18 females with the age range of 4-70 years. Blood and urine sample were collected from the participants. Serum urea and creatinine were determined using urease  berthelot’s reaction and Alkaline picrate methods. Serum total protein and albumin were assayed using Biuret and bromocresol green binding method through the manual colorimetrictechnique. Serum lipid profile were measured by an enzymatic spectrophotomeric method and the precipitation enzymatic method was specifically used for evaluating the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Urine protein was determined using sulphur salicylic acid test. SPSS software package version 21 was used for the analysis of data. High frequency of NS of 40(80%) was observed in patients of <18 years while patient of >46 years had a lower frequency of 4(8%). Males recorded higher frequency of 32(64%) and the frequency of NS among females was 18(36%), thus the male to female ratio for NS was 1.78:1. The mean values of serum creatinine, urea, urinary protein (UP), total cholesterol (T.C), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), T.C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, LDL/HDL-C ratio were significantly higher (p<0.05) in patients with NS than the healthy volunteers. Total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin, HDL-C ratio were significantly lower (p<0.05) in NS when compared to healthy volunteers. There was positive correlation between UP and TC, TG and LDL, however, negative correlation was observed between UP and HDL-C with no statistical significance. Dyslipidemia, decreased serum protein and increase serum creatinine, Urea as well as UP were associated with NS. In conclusion, lipid profile and UP analysis may be a useful tool for diagnosis of NS and early diagnosis can reduce the disease morbidity.

Published
2021-12-21
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 2006-6996
print ISSN: 2006-6996