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Simulation of Window-to-Wall Ratio for Thermal Comfort of Fully-Enclosed Courtyard Residential Buildings in Kafanchan

B. Markus


The literature has revealed that relationship between the courtyard and the window-to-wall ratio (WWR) is paramount to thermal comfort of fully-enclosed courtyard residential buildings. This study, therefore, seeks to determine the optimum WWR for fully-enclosed courtyard residential building typology for Kafanchan and its environs. The Integrated Environment Solution and Virtual Environment (IES-VE) simulation software was used to simulate five typologies of WWRs for four typologies of room area(s) in fully-enclosed courtyard residential buildings in Kafanchan. The IES-VE software was used for the simulation experiment. WWRs were developed into five models which were simulated to determine the optimum. The results revealed that, WWR4 (window size of 1.44m2) has better air temperature condition in all the room areas than all the remaining WWRs. This suggests that it is the best, followed by WWR3, 2, 1 and 5 respectively. Conclusively, WWR4 is the optimum. However, further simulation studies are required to understand optimum location of windows for improved airflow in the fullyenclosed courtyard building.