Prevalence and pattern of Dyslipidaemia among adult hypertensives in the general pratice clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City Edo State Nigeria
Background: Non-communicable diseases, notably hypertension and diabetes mellitus have become an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia and concurrent hypertension is also known to be on the increase in developing countries including Nigeria. Dyslipidaemia is one of the components of cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome. It is therefore important to know the lipid profile of hypertensive patients in planning their management.
This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidaemia among adult hypertensive patients attending the General Practice Clinic (G.P.C.) of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City.
Methodology: It was carried out using three hundred adult hypertensive patients aged ≥ 18 years who were randomly recruited over three months. In addition to collection of demographic variables, blood lipid profiles were assessed.
Results: The age range of the respondents was 18 to 80 years with a mean of 47.6 ± 12.5 years. Those aged 40 to 80 years accounted for 72.7%. There were 141 (47.0%) were males and 159 (53.0%) were females with a ratio of 1:1.3. A total of 134 (44.7%) were over weight while 77 (25.7%) were obese. Elevated total cholesterol levels (≥200mg/dl or ≥ 5.26mmol/l) were found in 61 (20.3%) of the respondents. Elevated levels of triglyceride (≥150mg/dl or ≥ 1.7mmol/l) were found in 77 (25.7%) and 107 (35.7%) had depressed levels of HDL (≤ 40mg/dl or ≤ 1.05mmol/l). Only 78 (26.0% had elevated levels of LDL (≥130mg/dl or ≥ 3.35mmol/l)
The study found that depressed HDL level was the most prevalent form of dyslipidaemia. There was no statistically significant relationship between all the lipid components and gender. However, there was a significant relationship between HDL-C levels and body mass index with depressed HDL-C correlating with over-weight and obesity. Therefore, strategies should be designed for weight reduction in adult hypertensives to control dyslipidaemia.
Conclusion: The study concluded that dyslipidaemia is prevalent among adult hypertensive patients in our environment and that it is an important issue that needs attention in the management of hypertensives. The study recommends enhanced screening of hypertensive patients (by primary care physicians) for dyslipidaemia.