Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria
Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on land use around the water sources can increase the level and number of contaminants if not properly used. This study evaluates the water quality of four spring waters (Asho, Ajie, Iyi-Nsukka and Ikwoka-Obimo) in Nsukka, Enugu state Nigeria to ascertain their suitability for drinking since they are consumed directly without treatment. Water samples were collected from these four springs and analyzed accordingly. The physical, chemical and bacteriological tests were carried out on the water samples with appropriate equipment. After analyzing the samples, it was found that some of the water parameters tested were within WHO/NIS standard and some were outside the range provided by WHO/NIS standard. Among the parameters tested that falls outside the range provided by WHO/NIS standard that has significant health implication are coliform and E. coli. It was found that there is high concentration of coliforms especially at Ajie and Iyi - Nsukka springs with 150MPN and 280MPN per 100ml respectively. Ajie and Iyi-Nsukka springs also have E. coli of 3MPN/100ml each while Asho and Ikwoka-Obimo springs have <3MPN/100ml. The contaminations is as a result of indiscriminate dumping of refuse, defecation around the water sources especially at the uphill side of these spring and the agricultural activities. Base on the findings, the water from these four springs is not safe for drinking without treatment.