Enrichment factor of atmospheric trace metal using zirconium titanium iron and copper as reference element

  • TF Ediagbonya
Keywords: Enrichment factor, X-ray fluorescence, Trace metal, TSP, PM10, PM2.5


Twelve (12) elements (Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba,  Sr, and Zr ) were detected in  total suspended particulate matter (TSP), inhalable particulate matter(PM10) and respirable particulate matter(PM2.5)collected at a receptor site located in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH).X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the trace metal in the particulate matter and the enrichment factors were computed using Iron (Fe), Titanium (Ti), Zirconium (Zr) and Copper (Cu) as reference elements. The measured metals in the glass filter paper were found to be in the range of Argon(Ar), 0.00-0.01mg/m3; Potassium(K), 0.03-0.18mg/m3; Calcium(Ca), 0.01 0.14mg/m3; Titanium (Ti), 0.01-04mg/m3; Iron (Fe), 0.00-0.02mg/m3, Zinc(Zn), 0.00-0.04mg/m3; Strontium(Sr), 0.02-0.21mg/m3; Barium(Ba), 0.08-0.16mg/m3; Nickel(Ni), 0.02- .07mg/m3; Copper(Cu), 0.08-3.10mg/m3; Zirconium(Zr), 0.01-0.27mg/m3; Vanadium(V), 0.00- .00mg/m3; Chlorine(Cl), 0.03-0.09mg/m3 in Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSP), in inhalable particulate matter Argon(Ar), 0.00-0.01mg/m3; Potassium (K), 0.00-0.13mg/m3; Calcium (Ca), 0.00-0.11mg/m3; Titanium (Ti), 0.03-0.07mg/m3; Iron(Fe), 0.00-0.03mg/m3; Zinc(Zn), 0.00-0.03mg/m3; Strontium(Sr), 0.01-0.02mg/m3; Barium(Ba), 0.13-0.16mg/m3; Nickel(Ni), 0.02-0.14mg/m3; Copper(Cu), 0.20-1.12mg/m3; Zirconium(Zr), 0.01-0.22mg/m3; Vanadium(V), 0.00-0.05mg/m3; Chlorine(Cl), 0.03-0.07mg/m3, while in respirable particulate matter, the measured metals in the glass filter paper were found to be in the range of Argon(Ar), 0.00-0.00mg/m3; Potassium (K), 0.06-0.22mg/m3; Calcium (Ca), 0.01-0.07mg/m3; Titanium (Ti), 0.02-0.03mg/m3; Iron(Fe), 0.00-0.01mg/m3; Zinc(Zn), 0.01-0.02mg/m3; Strontium(Sr), 0.01-0.02mg/m3; Barium(Ba), 0.01-0.01mg/m3; Nickel(Ni), 0.03-0.51mg/m3; Copper(Cu), 0.15-0.19mg/m3; Zirconium(Zr), 0.00-0.01mg/m3; Vanadium(V), 0.00-0.00mg/m3; Chlorine (Cl), 0.03-0.08mg/m3 .Copper (Cu) was highly enriched in all the locations when Iron was used as a reference element while Zirconium(Zr) was highly enriched when Iron was used as reference element but poorly enriched in all the locations when Cu was as a reference element. The enrichment values of the various element when Iron was as a reference element are shown in this order: Cu >Zr>Ba>Cl>Ni>Zn>Sr>Ti>K>Ca>V




Chemical, Industrial, Materials, Mechanical, Metallurgical, Petroleum & Production Engineering

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eISSN: 2467-8821
print ISSN: 0331-8443