On-site and Off-site Effects of Soil Erosion: Causal Analysis and Remedial Measures in Agricultural Land - a Review
Soil erosion is one of the main factors causing land degradation. Furthermore, loss of soil nutrients ultimately causes worldwide reduction of agricultural productivity and water quality deterioration. Therefore, soil erosion control measures are required as an aspect of catchment management. The general purpose of this paper review is to make an overview of soil erosion throughout the world in order to highlight required studies on which to be based when proposing appropriate erosion control measures for agricultural fields. Different scientific documents including journal articles, internet materials, conference papers and books were used as research materials to achieve the objectives of the present work. This methodology enabled the researcher to make a synthesis of various researchers’ views on this topic. Principally, this review focused on the effects and remedial measures of soil erosion. The research findings highlighted that soil erosion affects greatly the agricultural land, human properties and aquatic ecosystem. Both on-site and off-site effects are analyzed. Sediment transport in rivers resulted from soil erosion impacts on bridges, hydropower plants, water treatment plants and water bodies such as lakes and water reservoirs. The present review article strongly recommends the followings: (1) Performance improvement of the existing erosion control measures; (2) Promotion of new soil erosion adaptive measures; (3) Farmers trainings on Best Management Practices of soil erosion control and (4) Sensitization of governmental institutions and Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to be extensively involved in soil erosion management.
Keywords: Erosion causes, erosion effects, erosion control measures