Assessment of Factors Contributing to Medicine Expiry in Rwanda: Case of the Medical Procurement and Production Division

  • Theogene Hakuzimana Ministry of Health, Kigali, Rwanda.
  • Pierre Claver Kayumba EAC Regional Centre of Excellence for Vaccines, Immunization, and Health Supply Chain Management, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda
  • Innocent Hahirwa College of Medicines and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda
  • Max Kabalisa USAID/Global Health Supply Chain-Procurement and Supply Management Project, Kigali, Rwanda.
Keywords: medicine expiry, assessment and factors, Central Medical Store


Regardless of the significant efforts used and put in place to enhance supply chain performance in Rwanda, there is still poor inventory management and big loss due to expiry of medicines at Medical Procurement and Production Division (MPPD).
To assess the factors that contributes to expiry of medicines at MPPD and formulate recommendations for the improvement of the current situation.
This is a descriptive cross-sectional study used for 25 respondents. A questionnaire containing closed-ended questions was used focusing on factors contributing to expiries of medicines for each product category managed by MPPD from 2014-2018. Additionally, the researcher reviewed all inventory reports, including expiries for the same period under study. The study focused on targeting respondents working at MPPD as pharmacists both technical and administrative, also other non-pharmacist working in the warehouse were considered as respondents. The hard copy of questionnaire was handed over to 26 respondents and requested to provide filled questionnaire within seven days. Twenty-five respondents were able to return the filled questionnaire on time, giving 96% response rate.
The study found that in MPPD, medicines are still expiring. During five years (from 2014 up to 2018) the total expired products were valued at RWF 6,046,778,655 for all program categories: HIV commodities had the largest share 53.3%, Essential Medicines 22.5%, Malaria 13%, Maternal Child Health commodities 5.7%, Products used for Community health workers 4.5%, TB products 1% and 0.1% for Family Planning products. The study found that major contributing factors for expiry of health commodities at MPPD, are ranked as follows: Supply chain management 90%, other factors 73%, Poor storage management 68% and Excessive drug supply 67%.

Considering the study results, it looks like no significant effect of excessive drug supply and inventory management on the expiration of medicines at MPPD. However, the Supply Chain Management components are the most vulnerable to contribute to the expiration of medicines at MPPD. There are many changes to be done inside the institution to remedy the issue of expiration like working according to the standard operating procedures, improving the Skills of personnel in supply chain management, empowering the procurement unit with skilled personnel and improving the communication with stakeholders to facilitate the smooth and quick replenishment and distribution of the stock.

Rwanda J Med Health Sci 2021;4(2): 281-291


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2616-9827
print ISSN: 2616-9819