Examining teachers’ technological pedagogical and content knowledge in the era of cloud pedagogy

  • LiWei Hsu
  • Yen-Jung Chen
Keywords: Delphi method, hospitality education, ICT-TPCK, TLPACK, TPACK, TPACK-XL


With the ongoing innovation of instructional technologies there has been an emerging call to examine what types of knowledge teachers require to survive in the era of cloud pedagogy. In response to this call we proposed a research model – TLPACK – which is based on technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), information communication technologies - technological pedagogical content knowledge (ICT-TPCK), and education technology, pedagogy and didactics, academic subject-matter discipline, educational psychology and educational sociology knowledge (TPACK-XL), to explore the types of knowledge that teachers at various levels – from kindergarten to post-secondary level – should equip themselves with in detail. TLPACK consists of five constructs (technology knowledge, learner knowledge, pedagogy knowledge, academic discipline, content knowledge, and context knowledge) but in total the TLPACK scale comprises 39 items. All items were converged based on the viewpoints of five experts from academia and practice following six rounds of the Delphi method, and the finalised version was prepared for reliability and validity examination. Proportional stratified sampling was adopted to conduct a questionnaire survey among teachers from kindergarten to post-secondary levels in Taiwan (n = 301). Rigorous statistical analyses were undertaken to examine the reliability and validity of this new model. Based on the results of statistical analyses, including item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis, it is reasonable to state that the proposed TLPACK scale has good reliability and validity for practical use. The conclusion and limitations of this study were drawn based on the extracted results, and suggestions for future study are reported at the end of this report.

Keywords: Delphi method; hospitality education; ICT-TPCK; TLPACK; TPACK; TPACK-XL


Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2076-3433
print ISSN: 0256-0100