Assessment of liver and kidney functions in plasmodium infected mice co-administered with conventional antimalarials, Phyllanthus amarus and vitamins
This study evaluated the comparative effects of artesunate, chloroquine and the seed extracts of P. amarus alone, and in combination with vitamin A, B, C or E on biomarkers of liver and kidney functions in P. berghei infected mice. Swiss male and female mice were divided into 17 treatment groups (n=5). Some groups of parasitized mice received chloroquine, artesunate or seed extract of P. amarus alone and others in combination with vitamin A, B, C or E respectively for 5 days. Blood sample of the animals were collected through cardiac puncture, and levels of liver enzymes [alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], creatinine and urea were assayed using standard biochemical procedures.
The results show that there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in liver enzyme levels of the untreated parasitized control group. Treatment with chloroquine, artesunate and the seed extract of P. amarus. alone demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect against the increase in liver enzymes. Similarly, treatment with chloroquine in combination with vitamin E demonstrated significant decrease in ALT, the combination of vitamin A, B and E demonstrated significant decrease in AST, while vitamin A and E with chloroquine demonstrated significant decrease in ALP levels respectively. Treatment with the combination of vitamin B and E with artesunate demonstrated significant decrease in ALT, while treatment with vitamin A, C and E demonstrated significant decrease in AST and ALP respectively. The study also shows that the combination with extract and vitamins demonstrated significant decrease in liver enzymes. Therefore, activity demonstrated by this extract alone and/or in combination with these vitamins showed that the extract demonstrated better hepato-protective effect than that of chloroquine and artesunate alone or in combination with these vitamins. Co-administration of antimalarials with the vitamins may be hepato-renal protective in plasmodiasis.
Keywords: Malaria, Vitamins, liver, kidney, Phyllanthus amarus
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