Effets du remplacement de la farine de poisson par les termites (Macrotermes Sp.) sur l’evolution ponderale et les caracteristiques de carcasse de la volaille locale au Burkina Faso
The high cost and the accessibility of animal protein sources is a major issue in poultry farming in Burkina Faso. The present study aimed to assess the suitability of two termite species as feed for traditional chicken (Gallus domesticus) and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), comparatively to commercial fishmeal available in this country. The study was carried out during eight weeks in Burkina Faso on ninety chickens and ninety guinea fowls, sixteen weeks old. Two termite species (dry Macrotermes subhyalinus and fresh Macrotermes bellicosus) and commercial fishmeal for poultry feed formulation that is available in the country were used as animal protein ingredients in three feeding management regimes. The birds were allocated to the three feeding treatments, with two replicates per treatment: i) treatment 1 (R1) with a diet including 2.5% of dried termites; ii) treatment 2 (R2) diet with no animal protein ingredient included, but with fresh termites given separately and the amount was depending on the daily capture; iii) treatment 3 (R3) diet including 2.5% of fishmeal. The results showed an average daily feed consumption of 65.5 g per bird. Average daily gain (ADG) for chickens was 7.7 g, 7.8 g and 7.5 g for treatment R1, R2 and R3, respectively. ADG for guinea fowl was 5.64g, 5.34 g and 5.35 g for R1, R2 and R3, respectively. Carcass characteristics studied on male guinea fowl showed a mean carcass percentage of 66.4%. Data on the taste and tenderness showed that R1 and R2 gave a better taste to guinea fowl meat, while R3 and R2 gave more tender meat. Average dry matter contents of the thighs were 42.4%, 41.8% and 40.6% for the groups R1, R2 and R3, respectively. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between treatments for all the parameters. Thus, dry and fresh Macrotermes spp. can be suitable animal protein ingredients that can substitute fishmeal in traditional chickens and guinea fowl feeding in rural area.
Keywords: termites, fishmeal, feeding, local poultry, live weight performances, Burkina Faso