Growth techniques used to develop CDS/CDTE thin film solar cells: a review
The method used to grow thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells has been described. Electronic material layers usually grow in three different modes; layer-by-layer growth mode, layer and cluster growth mode (Stransky-Krastanov) and cluster formation growth mode. Techniques such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) called melt growth or Bridgman are well known as high quality semiconductor growth techniques. One of the limitations of these techniques is the inability for manufacturing macro-electronic devices (~area 1m2) such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and large area display devices. To grow large area thin film (semiconductors), growth techniques such as close space sublimation (CSS), electrodeposition (ED), sputtering, spray pyrolysis etcetera have been tested and employed. This paper reviews in depth most of these techniques with more emphasis on the electrodeposition method because of it is simplicity and low cost.
Keywords: Growth Techniques, CdS, CdTe, Thin Films, Solar Cells.