Effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the muscle fatty acid composition in Mangalitsa pigs in an extensive rearing system
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary flaxseed oil on the fatty acid (FA) composition of two types of muscles, longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST), of Mangalitsa pigs reared in an extensive system. Fourteen Mangalitsa castrated pigs, 55 ± 8 kg, 240 ± 12 days of age, were randomly assigned for a 35-d experimental period to two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets, namely a control (C) diet, and an experimental (E) diet with the additional inclusion of 30 g flaxseed oil/kg. The fatty acid profiles of the flaxseed oil diet, flaxseed oil and the LD and ST muscles were determined by gas chromatography. The α-linolenic (ALA) fatty acid content of the flaxseed oil amounted to 41.88% of the total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), resulting in an increased deposition of ALA in the LD muscle (2.07 times) and in the ST muscle (2.22 times) when compared with the control group. This effect is associated with the presence of eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids, which are beneficial to the health of human beings. Additionally, the n-6 : n-3 ratio of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the LD muscle (4.60 : 1 in the flaxseed diet, compared with 10.16 : 1 in the control diet) are very close to the n-6 : n-3 requirements (<5 : 1) of human. The results of this study indicated that flaxseed oil was a suitable nutritional solution to improving the fatty acid profile of specific muscles of indigenous Mangalitsa pigs.
Keywords: n-3 fatty acids, open house rearing, plant oil, pork quality