Submission: Submit electronic version through www.sasas.co.za

Scope of the Journal

The South African Journal of Animal Science is an open access, peer-reviewed journal for publication of original scientific articles and reviews in the field of animal science. The journal publishes reports of research dealing with production of farmed animal species (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, poultry and ostriches), as well as pertinent aspects of research on aquatic and wildlife species. Disciplines covered nutrition, genetics, physiology, and production systems. Systematic research on animal products, behaviour, and welfare are also invited. Rigorous testing of well-specified hypotheses is expected.

The South African Journal of Animal Science is published electronically. It is hosted at http://www.sasas.co.za/journals. One volume will be published per year, consisting of at least six issues, published at approximately 2 month intervals. Articles will, be published as soon as the copy-ready version has been approved by the submitting author and the publication fee has been paid. Details of requirements for different categories of manuscripts and of the peer-review process are given in the Instructions to Authors which may be downloaded from the website address given above. Prospective authors should adhere strictly to the guidelines detailed in the Instructions to Authors. Manuscripts that are not written with proper English grammar and syntax or that do not fully comply with the style and format of the journal will not be accepted for review. The submission process is handled by an Online Journal Management System to facilitate the Journal submission and review process (http://journals.sasas.co.za/). In all cases, submissions should represent original contributions to current scientific knowledge of the principles and of the application of principles governing the functioning of animals and their relationship to the social or physical environment.

In all cases, submitted manuscripts should represent original contributions to current scientific knowledge of the principles or the application of principles governing the functioning of animals, production aspects of their products and their relationship to the social or physical environment.

Publication fee per article published (NEW)
Effective 1 July 2020, the publication fee shall be R 3000.00 for the first 10 pages, and every subsequent page at R 300.00 per page where one of the authors is a SASAS member. Non-members in RSA and SADC: R 6000.00. Non-members, rest of Africa and overseas: US$ 500.00 for the first 10 pages, and every subsequent page at US$ 50.00 per page. The publication fee will be levied upon acceptance of manuscript. An accepted manuscript will not be edited and published until the fee had been paid. SASAS members may apply to the editor-in-chief for exemption of the publication fee.

Authors will be invoiced and they can make payment via the Online Journal Management System on the website using a credit card.

Types of articles

Research articles: Contributions should be based on original unpublished experimental data that have been analysed using statistical methods.

Short communications: Results from a limited investigation, work still in progress, and new techniques can be submitted as a short communication. It should not exceed five printed pages.
Reviews: Reviews should have as their main aim the synthesis or application of new principles, hypotheses or future research directions from re-interpretation and scrutiny of existing published scientific data. It is normal practice for authors to include some of their own new but previously unpublished data in support of the concept that is synthesised. Syntheses and applications from technical reports, surveys and other unpublished but scientifically justifiable sources of information can also be used in support. Reviews aimed at distilling existing published information into a form that will contribute to a clearer understanding or more widespread application of research findings by generalist extension officers and non-scientists are also welcomed. Reviews are normally solicited by the editor-in-chief, but suggestions for topics or authors are welcomed. Reviews are subjected to the same peer-review process as is applied to all other submissions.

Electronic publication
The South African Journal of Animal Science is published electronically via the Internet, and can be accessed from the following address: https://www.sasas.co.za/resources/sa-journal-animal-science/ or through http://www.sasas.co.za.

Copyright
Copyright resides with the authors in terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 South African Licence. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Users may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African Journal of Animal Science.

Policy on Plagiarism
(Adapted from https://www.nature.com/nature-research/editorial-policies/plagiarism, 13/8/2019)
Plagiarism is unacknowledged copying or an attempt to misattribute original authorship, whether of ideas, text or results. Plagiarism can include ‘theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work’. Plagiarism can be said to have clearly occurred when large chunks of text have been cut and pasted without appropriate and unambiguous attribution. Such manuscripts would not be considered for publication in the South African Journal of Animal Science. Aside from wholesale verbatim reuse of text, due care must be taken to ensure appropriate attribution and citation when paraphrasing and summarising the work of others. ‘Text recycling’ or reuse of parts of text from an author's own previous research publication is a form of self-plagiarism. Here, too, due caution must be exercised. When reusing text, either from the author's own publication or from that of others, appropriate attribution and citation are mandatory. Such attribution avoids creating a misleading perception on the part of the reader that the text is a unique contribution from the authors.
Duplicate publication occurs when an author reuses substantial parts of his or her own published work without providing the appropriate references. This can range from publishing an identical paper in multiple journals to adding only a small amount of new data to a previously published paper.
The editor in chief of the South African Journal of Animal Science assesses all such cases on their individual merits. Plagiarism detected in the review process will cause the submitted manuscript to be either rejected or immediately returned to the authors for correction. When plagiarism becomes evident after publication, the original publication may be corrected or retracted depending on the degree of plagiarism, context within the published article, and its impact on the overall integrity of the published study.

Submission and review process
➢ All submissions will be subjected to a peer-review process.
➢ The data upon which all types of manuscripts are based should be original (except review articles), should not have been published previously in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Submission of a manuscript is understood to imply that these conditions have been met. The context and/or detail of the new findings must be sufficiently different to merit addition to the matrix of knowledge through publication.
➢ Submission also implies that all authors have approved the submission and are in agreement with its content.
➢ If figures, tables or parts of other copyright material that are not owned by the authors are included in articles submitted for publication in the journal, it is the sole responsibility of the authors to obtain permission to republish such items.
➢ A sub-editor with the assistance of reviewers will be requested to review the manuscript and make a recommendation to the editor-in-chief.
➢ Authors may suggest a list of experts whom they consider especially suitable to referee their paper, especially if the subject is highly specialized.
➢ The editor in chief will advise the corresponding author on the outcome of the review based on the recommendation of the sub-editor.
➢ Resubmitted manuscripts will be evaluated by the sub-editor for adequacy of the response to the review and, if deemed necessary, may again be sent to reviewers for their insight. Resubmitted manuscripts must be accompanied by a summary of the changes made in the revision and a brief response to all recommendations and criticisms. The sub-editor will make a recommendation to the editor-in-chief to either ‘provisionally accept’ or ‘reject’ the manuscript.
➢ Once the paper has been provisionally accepted by the editor in chief an invoice for the publication fee and a publication agreement will be sent to the corresponding author.
➢ Upon receipt of the publication fee, the manuscript will be edited. The manuscript may be returned to the author at this point for additional revision, if necessary.
➢ After editing the article will be formatted as prescribed by the journal and published online (www.sasas.co.za). Note there is no hardcopy publication of the South African Journal of Animal Science.

Style and Form
Manuscripts will not be admitted to the peer-review process until they are fully compliant with the style and form detailed in the Instructions to Authors and are written with correct English grammar and syntax. Authors are advised to adhere strictly to the following directives and consult the most recent editions of the journal for issues not specifically mentioned here.
The manuscript must be written in English, using the UK English spell check. (i.e. do not express units in calories, pounds, miles, etc.). Submissions are to be typed in MS WORD as a .docx file and submitted electronically through the SASAS website: www.sasas.co.za. It is up to the authors to make sure there are no typographical errors in the manuscript. The manuscript should have line numbers. The contents must be arranged in an orderly way with suitable headings for each subsection.
The organizational structure for a research article to be submitted to the South African Journal of Animal Science is as follows:
Title: An informative and brief (maximum 120 characters, including spaces) topic statement that draws attention to the paper.
Authorship: The initials and surname of the author(s), the address of the institution where the work was done must follow the title. Superscripts (1,2,3) should be used in cases where authors are from different institutions. The superscript # should be appended to the author to whom correspondence should be addressed, and indicated as such together with an e-mail address in the line immediately following the keywords. The present postal address of authors, if currently different from that of the institution, should also be superscripted appropriately and inserted in the lines following that of the corresponding author’s details. All authors are requested to submit their ORCiD when their manuscript is accepted for publication. To obtain an ORCiD, register on: www.orcid.org/register. The ORCiD hyperlinks will immediately follow each authors name in the article that is published.
Abstract should be included next. It should contain the following: purpose of study, experimental treatments, results, preferably in quantitative data, significance of findings and the conclusions.
This should not exceed 250 words. Abbreviations and significance levels (e.g. P <0.05) should not be included in the abstract.
Keywords: Keywords should be listed in alphabetical order. Words in the title of the article should not be listed as keywords.
Introduction: The Introduction serves to motivate reading of the article. It should include i) a statement of why the subject under investigation is considered to be of importance, ii) a concise indication of the status quo of published research in this field and ii) why this article is considered to be an original contribution to current scientific knowledge of the principles or the application of principles governing the functioning of animals, production aspects of their products and their relationship to the social or physical environment. The last sentence of the introduction should contain a declaration of the aims of the experiment, i.e. the hypothesis. The introduction should not exceed one page in length.
Materials and Methods: Animal experimentation must be conducted within standard ethical norms. A statement indicating review of the project by an appropriate institutional animal care and use committee or an equivalent ethical review must be included as the first paragraph in the Materials and Methods section. Authors are encouraged to include the ethical clearance number. Description of the material that was used and the methodology should be concise but of sufficient detail to enable the experiment to be replicated by an outside party. Statistical methods used must be clearly stated (see below).
Results and Discussion: Integrity in reporting requires that no inconsistent data are omitted or fabricated data presented.
Conclusions: This single short paragraph should consist of a short integration of results that refer directly to the stated aims of the experiment and a statement on the practical implications of the results. Do not summarise the discussion here.
Acknowledgements: Do not include titles of persons; use only initials and surnames. Acknowledge all financial support. Include the NRF project GUN number, as required by the NRF. State and acknowledge any additional sponsors including private companies.
Authors’ contributions: All scientific publications to be published in the South African Journal of Animal Science must include appropriate attribution of authorship and disclosure of relevant affiliations of those involved in the work. Authorship should be limited to those individuals who have contributed in a meaningful and substantive way to the manuscript’s intellectual content. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for its content. All co-authors should have been directly involved in all three of the following: i) planning and contribution to some component (conception, design, conduct, analysis, or interpretation) of the work which led to the paper or interpreting at least a portion of the results; ii) writing a draft of the article or revising it for intellectual content; and iii) final approval of the version to be published. All authors should review and approve the manuscript before it is submitted for publication.
Conflict of interest declaration: A conflict of interest exists when financial or other personal considerations may compromise, or have the appearance of potential to compromise a researcher's professional judgment in conducting or reporting research. Such conflicts of interest do not preclude publication of the work. However, they must be disclosed.
References: The existing relevant literature must be cited appropriately and fairly (see below for examples). In this respect ensure that reference is made to the original report of a finding rather than to a later elaboration. DOI addressing is required for all references.

The organizational structure for a short communication to be submitted to the South African Journal of Animal Science is as follows:

➢ See the guidance relative to a research article for information that pertains to the Title, Authorship, the Abstract and Keywords.
➢ Body of the paper: Text for the body of a short communication consists of a short introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion, and conclusion as a single section. This section is not titled. It is not more than 5 pages in length, including the Tables and Figures.
➢ See the guidance relative to a research article for information that pertains to the Acknowledgements, Author contributions, Conflict of interest declaration, and References.

Tables are to be written in MS Word, numbered consecutively in bold Arabic numerals (e.g. Table 1 note that there is no following colon or full stop), and should bear a short, yet adequately descriptive caption, which would be sufficient for interpretation of the data presented if the table and caption were to be separated from the text. Example: inadequate: ‘Table 1 Feed intake effects’; correct:
Table 1 Mean (± SE) voluntary intake (g/d) of two diets differing in crude protein content by early weaned (21 d) piglets’. The caption is to be set in 10 pt Arial font with the word Table and its number (only) in Bold. Tables should be inserted at the appropriate place in the text and not appended at the end of the article. The body of the table is to be set in 9 pt Arial font with the headings in bold, but without any bold entries in the body of the table. Tables must fit on a single page and should not straddle a page break. Tables may be entered in landscape mode to accommodate a greater number of columns.

Metric units required and their symbols and abbreviated must be in accordance with international procedure. Explanatory notes to table elements are designated by superscripts. These notes appear on the lines directly below the table; set in 9 pt Arial font. Means presented in tables are to be accompanied by their standard error (± SE). Use of multiple range tests (i.e., Duncan’s, Tukey's, Student's t-test) for mean separation is discouraged. Use of pre-planned contrasts of means is encouraged. Tables should be centred on the page. Authors should pay special attention to the format for tables regarding lines, i.e. no vertical lines and 1½ pt font horizontal lines before and after the heading and the last row of data only. Place each entry in a separate cell in the table. Align decimal points in columns of means. The row and column headings are to be in bold font.

Figures are to be numbered consecutively in bold Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure 1), bear a short, yet adequately descriptive caption, and are inserted into the text at the appropriate position. The caption is to be set in 10 pt Arial with the word ‘Figure’ and its number (only) in Bold. Scanned illustrations for other sources are not acceptable. Bit map images should be sized to fit on a portrait mode page and have a resolution of not less than 600 dpi. All lettering and numerals that appear on figures should be set in Arial 9 pt font in ‘regular’ not ‘bold’. Point means should be accompanied by standard error bars. Tic marks on axes should face towards the inside of the graph. Place its title underneath the Figure, but not as part of the inserted section. Do not ‘block’ the figure with lines surrounding it. Ensure that lines, including axes and graphs, are of sufficient thickness and contrast to be clear.

Terminology, abbreviations and formulae
Use the SI metric system (http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hillger/correct.htm) for units of measurement and use a decimal point. For numbers less than 1, use a leading zero before the decimal point. Spell out numbers from one to nine; use numerals for larger numbers, groups of numbers, fractions or units, e.g. four; 8-16; 0.64; 4 kg/ha; 42 ewes, 67%. Note the spacing in the following text: P <0.05 with P in italics; and 5 min.
For litres, use the abbreviation L or mL. When reporting concentrations of the chemical composition of diets, use g/kg and not %; mg/kg and not ppm; mg Cu/kg and not mg/kg Cu; do not use the word ‘content’ when specifying a concentration in terms of g/kg or %. Use percent mainly to indicate relative changes. Express nutrient concentrations of feeds, preferably on a dry matter (DM) basis, and indicate the basis clearly in the table. When abbreviations are used, they must be explained in full the first time they are used in the text, and also in tables and figures. Use abbreviations sparingly as too many abbreviations create confusion. Do not start a sentence with an acronym or abbreviation. Formulae are to be prepared using the MS Word equation editor using the Cambria math 11 pt font, and are not to be presented as images. Formulae should be shown alone and centred on a line without other punctuation. For example:
??? = ? + ?? + ???
where: ??? = an observation from the jth animal that was subjected to the ith treatment; ? = the grand mean that is common to all observations; ?? = the ith treatment; and ??? = the random error that is attributable to the jth animal.

References appearing in the text
Cite references by name and date. In the case of two authors, use an ampersand (&) and not ‘and’. The abbreviation ‘et al.’ must be used in all cases where more than two authors are quoted. Note: the comma after et al., is not in italics. Personal communications and unpublished work should be cited in the text, giving the initials, name and date. Personal communications do not appear in the list of references. Personal communications appear only in the text similar to the following: According to Brightguy (2005, A.B. Brightguy, Pers. Comm., Centre of Wisdom, P.O. Box 100, Pretoria, 0001) – enough details so that person could be contacted. All other references in the text should be listed alphabetically by first authors’ surnames at the end of the paper under the heading, ‘References’. Multiple references within parentheses in the text should be cited in chronological order.
Examples:
Apart from the work of Chevallerie & Smith (1971), Veary (1991) and Lewis et al. (1997), little data…
or
… and has been shown to increase the pH (Chevallerie & Smith, 1971; Veary, 1991; Lewis et al., 1997).
When citing a reference that is not the primary report, put: ‘original authors (1991, cited by citing authors, 1997)’ in text, and the original work followed by the statement ‘Cited by’ parenthetically in list of references. For example: show Scott (1947, cited by Tainton, 1999) in the text and Scott, J.D., 1947. Veld management in South Africa. Bull., Dept. Agric. S. Afr. No. 28. (cited by Tainton, 1999) in the list of references.

Statistics
Following Lush (1933; https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1933.1933115x) statistical methods are used for two main purposes. The first is to describe the particular sample of data under scrutiny. The second is to test the significance of a difference between that sample and some other actual sample or some theoretically expected value. The two purposes of description and of testing significance are not independent of each other but they are far from being identical. A comparison between two lots can result in three ways. One, a difference may be observed, and shown to be significant at some predetermined level of probability. Two, a difference may be observed but its test does not rise to the predetermined threshold for statistical significance. Three, no difference may be observed. The latter two should not be confused. We cannot honestly leave the impression that no difference was found when we really did find one, but it was not statistically significant. We can only declare outcomes to be similar when the number of replications ensures adequate power-of-the-test. Even though one does
not find a significant difference, it should always be kept in mind that the difference most likely to be found if the experiments are repeated is the observed difference and not zero. The experimental unit may be defined as the object independently treated in an experiment. The experimental unit may be an individual animal or a pen of animals. Independence among experimental units is an essential feature of an experiment aimed at establishing cause and effect. The word ‘independently’ also aids in the identification of the experimental unit as treatments applied independently to animals in a group make the animals the experimental units, but treatments applied to a group of animals together makes the entire group a single experimental unit. Variation among experimental units that are treated alike (i.e., variation among replicates) provides the basis for testing treatment effects. Misidentification of the experimental unit can lead to grossly inflated Type-1 error rates in hypothesis testing (Blair, 1983; https://doi.org/10.1177/001316448304300110). It is not an uncommon mistake.
Appropriate statistical methods should be in all reports, although the biology should be emphasized. Referring only to the software that is used for analysing the data is not sufficient. The significance threshold used to declare effect to be real must be stated. For example, ‘Treatment effects were assumed to be real when the probability of finding the observed difference by chance was less than 5% (i.e., P < 0.05).’ Results from the statistical analyses should justify the interpretations and conclusions. The means of all variables measured should be presented in a table, together with their respective standard errors (i.e. mean ± SE). Note that for data analysed using an analysis of variance it is assumed that the variances are homogeneous within classes of the independent variables. Thus the standard errors should be calculated from the estimated error variance and not from the variance calculated separately for each level of an independent variable.
Do not use the word ‘significantly’ where the level of significance is declared: e.g. use ‘Treatment A was different than treatment B (P < 0.01)’ or ‘The difference between treatment A and treatment B was highly significant’ but not ‘The difference between treatment A and treatment B was highly significant (P >0.01)’. Where means do not differ significantly, the appropriate level of probability could be stated e.g. ‘---did not differ (P >0.05)’. Note the following syntax ‘variables differ between treatments’ not ‘variables differ among treatments’. It is important that variability of the estimated effects be properly indicated. The standard error (SE) of a mean is an estimate of how far that mean is likely to be from its true value, whereas the standard deviation (SD) of the sample is the degree to which individuals within a sample differ from the sample mean. The standard errors for a set of means are directly relevant to the comparisons among them.
When the treatments have a natural underlying quantitative basis it is not appropriate to treat them as though they were categorical. In this situation, regression methods or orthogonal polynomial contrasts of the means are more appropriate. To illustrate these results, the actual means for each level of the factor should be displayed and not the fitted means, and the continuous function fitted to the data should be drawn through these means. Coefficients of the curve fitted to the data need to be displayed together with their SEs.
For experiments in which variation may be attributable to more than one independent variable, a test of each potential interaction effect is expected. When the interaction effect is significant, tabular or graphic presentation of the interacting effects is expected, and interpretation of the interaction must have priority over the interpretation of the main effects that interact.

References appearing in the list ‘References’ at the end of the article:
➢ List all authors for each reference. Do not use abbreviated conventions … or et al.
➢ Titles of references are to written in sentence case (i.e., only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized).
➢ Journal names must be abbreviated according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals.
➢ Pay particular attention to the syntax used in the reference list. References in the text must correspond completely and exactly with those in the reference list. In all cases, a reference must provide sufficient information to enable the reader to obtain a copy of the cited work.
➢ References to unpublished congress presentations are NOT acceptable.
➢ References to the original work are preferred over citation of textbooks.
➢ Reference to internet articles is permissible. Supply the full html address for the source material and the date which the material was most recently accessed; for example: https://www.grandin.com/meat/dkcut.html; accessed 10 October 2019).
➢ In the Reference section of the manuscript, the list of references is to be arranged alphabetically by their first author. When there is more than one reference by the same first author, these are to be arranged first by the number of authors and then within a group of references having the same number of authors in chronological order, oldest first.

It is the FULL responsibility of the authors to cross-check references in the text of the article with those in the list of references.

Examples of references: (Hanging indent 1 cm)

AOAC, 2019. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (21st ed.), Volume 1. Ed. Latimer, G.W. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
Cloete, S.W.P., Engelbrecht, A., Olivier, J.J. & Bunter, K.L., 2008. Deriving a preliminary breeding objective for commercial ostriches. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 48, 1247-1256. doi 10.1071/EA08135
Qwabe, S.O., vanMarle-Koster, E., Maiwashe, A. & Muchadeyi, F.C. 2013. Evaluation of the BovineSNP50 genotyping array in four South African cattle populations. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 43, 64-67. doi 10.4314/sajas.v43i.7
Read, M.V.P., 1984. Animal performance from natural pastures and the effects of phosphorus supplementation. MSc (Agric) thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Sanchez, M.S.S., Nascimento, M.S. & Hisano, H. 2016. Substituição do milho pelo sorgo em dietas para juvenis de pacu. Pesq. Agropec. Bras. 51, 1-8. dio 10.1590/S0100-204X2016000100001 (in
Portugese, English abstract).
Tainton, N.M., 1999. The ecology of the main grazing lands of South Africa. In: Veld Management in South Africa. Ed: Tainton, N.M., University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. pp. 48.

Retractions
Procedures as recommended by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (www.publicationethics.org) will be followed.

Formatting (MSWord):

Page layout: Page size: A4; Line numbering ON – restart each page; Margins Top: 3 cm, Bottom: 2.5 cm, Left: 2 cm, Right: 2 cm, Gutter: 0 cm, Header: 1 cm, Footer: 1.4 cm;

Insert: Page numbering ON - position: top right, Arial 9 point

Paragraph: Line spacing: single; No spacing ‘before’ (0 pt) or ‘after’ (0 pt) lines

Example Research article:
Title (Maximum 120 characters, Arial 12 pt, bold, centred, no period)
12 pt
S.S. Authors# & T.T. Co-author(11 pt, bold, centred, no period)
Affiliations, including country (9 pt, centred)
9 pt
9 pt
(submission history) 8pt

Copyright resides with the authors in terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 South African Licence.
See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/za
Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African Journal of Animal Science.
(10 pt)

Abstract (11pt, bold)
The objective of this study was… (10pt, justified)

Keywords (11 pt, bold): Words not in title (10 pt, alphabetical)
# Corresponding author: email address for correspondence (Font size: 9 pt)

Introduction (11 pt, bold)
Small stock may potentially contribute to subsistence… (10 pt, justified)

Materials and Methods (11 pt, bold)
Ethical clearance for this research was granted by the Animal Care and Use Committee of … (Ethical clearance number xx-xxxx xx-xxxx). (10pt, justified)

Results and Discussion (11 pt, bold)
Meat colour was significantly affected by… (10 pt, justified)

Conclusions (11 pt, bold)
These findings will benefit … (10 pt, justified)

Acknowledgements (9 pt, bold)
The authors thank Joe Consultant for assistance with the statistical analyse, the University for providing facilities in which to conduct the work, and Department of Trade and Industry’s THRIP program (THRIP/xx/xx/xx/yyyy) for the bursary to support SSA. (9pt)

Authors’ contributions (9 pt, bold)
SSA collected the data for this study, conducted the statistical analyses, collaborated in interpretation of the results, and wrote the initial draft of this manuscript; TTS developed the original hypotheses, designed the experiments, collaborated in interpreting the results, and finalized the manuscript. Both authors have read and approved the finalized manuscript. (9pt)

Conflict of interest declaration (9 pt, bold)
TTS was employed by XYZ, Ltd. which provided funding for this research. (9pt)

References (9pt, bold)
AOAC, 2019. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (21st ed.), Volume 1. Ed. Latimer, G.W. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
Cloete, S.W.P., Engelbrecht, A., Olivier, J.J. & Bunter, K.L., 2008. Deriving a preliminary breeding objective for commercial ostriches. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 48, 1247-1256. doi 10.1071/EA08135
.
.
.
Tainton, N.M., 1999. The ecology of the main grazing lands of South Africa. In: Veld Management in South Africa. Ed:
Tainton, N.M., University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. pp. 48.

Do not introduce sub-headings into the main heading sections – separate different sections using paragraphs. Do not leave open lines between paragraphs.

Example Short communication:

Short Communication

Title (Maximum 120 characters, Arial 12 pt, bold, centred, no period)
12 pt
S.S. Authors# & T.T. Co-author(11 pt, bold, centred, no period)

Affiliations, including country (9 pt, centred)
9 pt
9 pt
(submission history) 8pt

Copyright resides with the authors in terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 South African Licence.
See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/za
Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African Journal of Animal Science.
(10 pt)

Abstract (11 pt, bold)
The objective of this study was… (10 pt, justified)

Keywords (11 pt, bold): Words not in title (10 pt, alphabetical)
# Corresponding author: email address for correspondence Font size: 9 pt)

Text of article … (10 pt, justified, no headings, limit 5 pages)

Acknowledgements (9 pt, bold)
The authors thank Joe Consultant for assistance with the statistical analyse, the University for providing facilities in which to conduct the work, and Department of Trade and Industry’s THRIP program (THRIP/xx/xx/xx/yyyy) for the bursary to support SSA. (9pt)

Authors’ contributions (9 pt, bold)
SSA collected the data for this study, conducted the statistical analyses, collaborated in interpretation of the results, and wrote the initial draft of this manuscript; TTS developed the original hypotheses, designed the experiments, collaborated in interpreting the results, and finalized the manuscript. Both authors have read and approved the finalized manuscript. (9pt)

Conflict of interest declaration (9 pt, bold)
TTS was employed by XYZ, Ltd. which provided funding for this research.

References (9 pt, bold)
(As for research articles, but usually far fewer)

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Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 2221-4062
print ISSN: 0375-1589