The role of formative feedback in promoting higher order thinking skills in classrooms: a theoretical model
Feedback plays an important role in the teaching and learning environment because it provides learners with information intended to help them improve their learning. For feedback to be successful in this role, the information from feedback must also highlight the type of thinking exhibited in performing any tasks. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine the role feedback plays in promoting higher order thinking. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical feedback model that can promote higher order thinking. The components of the model include: conducive learning environment, instructional activities, task characteristics, validating students’ thinking, and providing feedback. Future research is needed to empirically test the variables and their relationships as proposed in the model.
Keywords: classroom environment, formative assessment, formative feedback, higher order, thinking