African Research Review

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Street littering in Nigerian towns: towards framework for sustainable urban cleanliness

EE Nkwocha, IO Okeoma


An aspect of solid waste management that has become almost intractable to local authorities in Nigeria is street littering. In a study carried out across the country in April/May 2008, this paper tried to expose some of the major factors that contribute to street littering. Six thousand subjects living along 120 streets (6 streets per town) were interviewed in 20 towns in the six geopolitical zones of the country. Data was collected for a period of five days and were focused on several questions bordering on street littering (why they littered, what they littered, where they littered, etc.), and their personal information (age, sex, income status, educational levels etc.). Data was analysed using univariate and multivariate models. Results showed that the litter problem was quite intense in all the streets surveyed. The level of education, age and income of subjects were major determinants of their littering habit. We also found that subjects littered the streets for several reasons (absence of bins, inefficiencies of local authorities, ignorance, weak legislation, anger, stress, etc). Finally, the study presented a framework for a sustainable urban cleanliness in the country.

Key Words: attitude, behaviour, cleanliness, littering, street, sustainable.
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