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This research examined the effect of Human Development Index (HDI) on agricultural output of Kenya over the period of nineteen years (from 1999 to 2018). Data on agricultural output was sourced from World bank, while data on birth rate, death rate, life expectancy and school enrollment, were obtained from Index Mundi. Ordinary least squares regression was used to analyze data in this study. The findings of the study revealed that birth rate had a positive and significant effect on agricultural output in Kenya. The study recommended that the Kenya government should ensure that Kenya’s rising population is channeled into agriculture for optimum output level. In addition, the Kenya government should increase access to affordable health care services so as to reduce death rates in order for Kenya to achieve increased agricultural output.