Phytochemical Screening and antimicrobial activity of ethanol and chloroform extract of Zizyphus nummularis Wt. & Arm.
Zizyphus nummularis Wt. & Arm. (Family: Rhamnaceceae) has ethnomedicinal value used by the local tribe of south Orissa, India for the treatment of typhoid, dysentery and diarrhea. The ethanol and chloroform extracts from various parts of the plant stem, leaves and root were analyzed for the presence of bioactive compounds. In addition, antimicrobial activity of the extracts from various parts where separately assessed against Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was evaluated. Bioactive compounds from all the parts were found to contain tannin, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides and alkaloids in addition to certain other minor compounds. Maximum zone of inhibition was found with the ethanolic root extract against S. typhimurium (20.2 mm) as compared to other microbes tested. The MIC of ethanolic root extracts was found to be 7.81 mgml-1 against S. typhimurium and E. coli whereas the same MIC of chloroform extracts was found to be effective against S. typhimurium. The study demonstrates that the root of Z. nummularies can affectively be used against microbial infection. However, a further study is needed to advocate the safety of the bioactive compounds in therapeutic use.
Key words: Phytochemicals, antimicrobial activity, zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration.