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Antioxidant activities and phytochemical compounds of ethanol and hot water extracts of Agaricus bisporus species fruiting body and mycelia cultivated in Kenya were spectophotometrically determined and evaluated. The total antioxidant activity was analysed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil, hydroxyl, superoxide radical scavenging and reducing power assays, while phytochemicals were assayed through calorimetric assays. Total phenolic, β-carotene, lycopene, flavanoid and ascorbic acid composition of A. bisporus extracts was analysed by calometric assays and found to contain 40.26 to 4.61 mg/g, 48.99 to 2.86 mg/g, 67.82 to 11.87 mg/g, 93.8 to17.2 mg/g and 11.62 to 10.22 mg/g) respectively. The mineral elemental analysis done using energy dispenser x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analytical method revealed that the samples contain zinc (42.9 mg/l), iron (33 to 48.5 mg/l), copper (18 to 24 mg/l) and manganese (7.5 to 9 mg/l). Generally, the mycelium extracts were more effective radical scavengers than the fruiting bodies. Due to the above characteristics, A. bisporus mushroom could be considered a food complement with antioxidative activity in the diet for the health benefits they present. Their effectiveness was also evaluated by their EC50 values through interpolation from linear regression analysis of their respective data.
Keywords: Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), edible mushroom, antioxidant, reducing power, scavenging ability, phytochemicals.
Abbreviation: MEE, Mycelium ethanoic extract; FBEE, fruiting body ethanoic extract; FBHWE, fruiting body hot water extract; MHWE, mycelium hot water extract.