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Vernonia ferruginea Less. is a perennial shrub species, present in several regions of Brazil, especially in the savanna. It is popularly used as a phytotherapic. This fact justifies the need to anatomically characterize the plant for its accurate identification and to conduct histochemical studies with the aim of identifying the chemical nature of its cellular constituents. The species-specific data will contribute significantly to pharmaceutical quality control and also provide information about the sites of specific chemical compounds. Samples of V. ferruginea vegetative organs were collected and submitted to the usual plant anatomy and histochemical techniques. The leaves are anfihipoestomática with anomocytic stomata; have tector and glandular trichomes that store essential oils. The stem has collateral-type vascular bundles arranged in a eustele structure; it also has glandular and tector trichomes. The root has brachysclereids, endoderm with various chemical compounds and vascular bundles having axial elements and rays. Few differences were found in the structure of vegetative organs in relation to other species of the genus, confirming the importance of the details shown.
Key words: Plant anatomy, assapeixe-branco, essential oils.