Genetic variation of durum wheat landraces using morphological and protein markers
Genetic variations of cultivars are very interesting in reducing genetic vulnerability and lead to stable control of production. The aim of this research was to study genetic diversity among six durum wheat cultivars. For the first assay we evaluated seven morphological traits which are: spikelet per spike, spike length, spike width, beard length, plant height, width of truncation and barb length. The tested genotypes were classified in three groups according to the linkage distance analysis. The genetic variability was also evaluated for seed storage-proteins by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Electrophoregram allowed the estimation of the durum wheat genetic similarity (GS). This GS analysis based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic averages (UPGMA), permits to obtain the same genotypic clustering. No significant correlation was observed among the two methods tested. It is concluded that seed storage protein profiles could be useful markers in the studies of genetic diversity and genotypes classification, which can be used to improve the efficiency of wheat breeding programs.
Key words: Wheat genotypes, SDS-PAGE, genetic diversity, cluster analysis.