Biochemical characterization of indigenous Fulani and Yoruba ecotypes chicken of Nigeria
AbstractThe study was carried out to characterize two indigenous chickens of Nigeria using protein markers; haemolglobin (HB) and carbonic anhydrase (CA). Separation of the two proteins was achieved by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and direct gene counting method was employed to interpret the result. Palentological statistics was used to generate dendrogram that measured genetic similarity within and between each of the population studied. HB was interpreted into three phenotypes: AA, AB and BB which were genetically controlled two codominant alleles HBA and HBB. Allele frequencies of HBA and HBB in Yoruba ecotype chicken were 0.34 and 0.66, respectively, while those of Fulani ecotype were 0.28 and 0.72, respectively. CA was also interpreted into three phenotypes (FF, FS and SS) which are genetically controlled by two codominant alleles CAF and CAS; their respective allele frequencies were 0.33 and 0.67 in Yoruba ecotype chicken and 0.24 and 0.76 in Fulani ecotype chicken. Genetic similarity within ecotype indicated 60% in Fulani, 80% in Yoruba and 40% between Yoruba and Fulani at HB locus while at CA locus, genetic similarity was 69% in Fulani ecotype, 50% in Yoruba ecotype and 42% between Yoruba and Fulani ecotype. Cavalli-Sforza genetic distance between the two Ecotypes was 2.1x10-2. Conclusively, the two populations were genetically related and further studies should focus on other protein markers and at molecular level.
Keywords: Ecotype, protein marker, genetic distance and selection
Afr. J. Biotechnol. Vol. 12 No. 50