Potential use of rhizobial bacteria as promoters of plant growth for increased yield in landraces of African cereal crops

  • Viviene N Matiru Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
  • Felix D Dakora Research Development, Cape Technikon Room 2.8 Administration Building, Keizersgracht PO Box 652, Cape Town 8000, South Africa
Keywords: Rhizobia, N<sub>2</sub> fixation, plant growth, sorghum, millet

Abstract

Rhizobia form root nodules that fix nitrogen (N2) in symbiotic legumes. Extending the ability of these bacteria to fix N2 in non-legumes such as cereals would be a useful technology for increased crop yields among resource-poor farmers. Although some inoculation attempts have resulted in nodule formation in cereal plants, there was no evidence of N2 fixation. However, because rhizobia naturally produce molecules (auxins, cytokinins, abscicic acids, lumichrome, rhiboflavin, lipo-chito-oligosaccharides and vitamins) that promote plant growth, their colonization and infection of cereal roots would be expected to increase plant development, and grain yield. We have used light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy to show that roots of sorghum and millet landraces from Africa were easily infected by rhizobial isolates from five unrelated legume genera. With sorghum, in particular, plant growth and phosphorus (P) uptake were significantly increased by rhizobial inoculation, suggesting that field selection of suitable rhizobia/cereal combinations could increase yields and produce fodder for livestock production.

Key Words: Rhizobia, N2 fixation, plant growth, sorghum, millet

African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 1-7
Published
2004-06-29
Section
Articles

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eISSN: 1684-5315