Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

  • LN Dongo
  • SB Orisajo
Keywords: Cocoa, cocoa swollen shoot virus, ELISA.


Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus Disease (CSSVD) is one of the major diseases affecting cocoa production in West Africa, especially Ghana. The lack of any published article on the continued presence or absence
of this viral disease has necessitated this investigation. Cocoa leaf samples from plants showing symptoms of leaf chlorosis, interveinal chlorosis with mottling and swollen shoot were collected from
Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, and two farmers’ plots at Offa-Igbo, both in Oyo State, Nigeria. Detection of Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) in the leaf samples was done by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using antiserum raised against mild and severe strains of the virus. CSSV was readily detected in 60% of the samples by Antigen Coated Plate ELISA (ACP-ELISA) but not with the Protein A Sandwich ELISA (PAS-ELISA). Of the positive samples, 16.67% reacted to both the mild and severe strains of the virus. CSSV was detected in most of the positive samples from farmers’ plot 1 (68.96%) than from farmers’ plot 2 and CRIN respectively (54.16 and 55.55%). The result has re-established the natural occurrence of the virus in Nigeria and thus calls for a re-evaluation of the economic importance of the disease in Nigeria.

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eISSN: 1684-5315