Garcinia kola extract reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages using U937 cells as a model

  • T Okoko
  • IF Oruambo
Keywords: Garcinia kola, lipopolysaccharide, phorbol myristate acetate, macrophage, cytokines.


The effect of Garcinia kola heckel seed extract on the promonocytic cell line U937 activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. 200 l of U937 cells maintained in culture at 5 x 105 cells per
ml was delivered into wells of a culture plate according to groups. Cells were pre-treated with 20 l of 100 ng/ml phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) for 24, 48, or 72 h in order to transform them to the
macrophage form. Following the PMA treatment, some cells were incubated with 100 g/ml LPS (group C), while others (group D) were treated with 100 g/ml LPS and 100 ìl of 100 g/ml of the G. kola
methanolic extract. Other cells (groups A, and B) were incubated with neither LPS nor extract. 24 h later, the supernatants were analysed for the production of TNF- and IL6 as indices for the activation
of macrophages. The results show that the G. kola extract reduced the tendency of LPS to activate the cells. However, highest activation of LPS was observed when the cells were incubated with PMA for 48
h prior to the addition of LPS. This suggests that stimulation of U937 cells with PMA is necessary for the production of cytokines and that G. kola possesses considerable immunomodulatory activity.

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eISSN: 1684-5315