Ultraviolet and environmental stresses involved in the induction and regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis: A review
Anthocyanins are the most conspicuous class of flavonoids which present a large class of secondary plant metabolites. Anthocyanins are important to many diverse functions within plants. Anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well established. Two classes of genes required for anthocyanin biosynthesis have been extensively characterized; the structural genes encoding the enzymes that directly participate in the formation of anthocyanins and other flavonoids, and the regulatory genes that control the transcription of structural genes. Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating plant development and genes expression. Ultraviolet takes up 7% of sunlight and it stimulates distinct responses in plant. Both UV-A and low influence of UV-B can induce the accumulation of anthocyanin via induction of the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Besides, the modulation of anthocyanin by environmental and developmental factors has been observed. A number of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are induced by abiotic stresses.