Prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and chromosomal determinants in surface water of Bangladesh
AbstractA total of 210 different bacteria were isolated from water samples collected in different surveillance sites in Bangladesh between May and July 2004. Of these, 147 isolates were analyzed and 103 were
identified by different biochemical tests as well as stereotyped with specific antiserum. Sixty five percent of these isolates were identified as Escherichia coli which were resistant to multiple drugs including tetracycline, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim. The remaining thirty five percent of the isolates were Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas,
Staphylococcus and Klebsiella. Most of the V. cholerae were nalidixic acid, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim resistant. Almost 90% of nalidixic acid resistant V. cholera were
stereotyped as non O1. The remaining 10% were O1 and O139. All bacteria were used to isolate plasmid DNA to compare plasmid patterns. The plasmid contents of representative drug resistant strains were analyzed by electroporation to determine the location of antibiotic resistant gene whether it was chromosomal or extrachromosomal. The results of these experiments suggested that Bangladeshi
environmental water including rivers, lakes and ponds contained a large number of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and almost all antibiotic resistant determinants were located in the chromosome instead of plasmid.