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African Journal of Biotechnology

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Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice and subchronic toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Parinari curatellifolia Planch (Chrysobalanaceae) seeds in rats

SO Ogbonnia, SO Olayemi, EN Anyika, VN Enwuru, OO Poluyi

Abstract


Parinari curatellifolia seeds are ethnobotanically used in the treatment of diabetes and other diseases. The seed drug preparations are administered over a long period of time in the treatment of certain
disease conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the seed extract through acute toxicity study. Also subchronic toxicity in the animals was carried out by assessing the effects on
biochemical parameters, body weight and liver, heart and renal organs following oral administration of aqueous ethanolic extract of the seeds. Toxicity of the extract was evaluated in Swiss albino mice by
feeding the animals with graded doses of the extract between 1.0 to 20.0 g/kg body weight orally and observed continuously for the first 4 h and every hourly for the next 24 h, then 6 hourly for 48 h (72 h,
acute toxicity). Wistar rats were also fed with different extract doses for at least 30 days and the effects on biochemical parameters evaluated (subchronic toxicity model). The median acute toxicity value
(LD50) of P. curatellifolia seeds extract was found to be 7.27 g/kg body weight. The extract reduced plasma glucose and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels, but increased high density lipoprotein (HDL)–cholesterol in the treated groups compared to the control. A significant increase in the body weight was observed in all the groups treated with the extract. Aspartate aminotransferases (AST), creatinine and phosphorus levels were significantly increased only in the group treated with highest dose of the extract while significant decrease in alanine aminotransferases (ALT) level was observed in all groups. The LD50 value indicated the drug to be quite safe in one dose treatment. The study also showed that the extract had good hypoglycemic effects and good reducing effects on the cardiovascular risk factors but indicated that high dose of the extract on a long term use can cause
liver and kidney problems.



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