Effects of the aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Calotropis procera on haematological and biochemical parameters in female rabbits

  • JD Mbako
  • Z Adamu
  • JK Afutu
  • A Aliyu
  • S David
  • MB Umar
  • C Nduaka
Keywords: Calotropis procera, phytochemical, toxicity, haematology, protein and serum enzymes.

Abstract

Calotropis procera has been reported to be medicinal and toxic in animals. A toxicological evaluation of the aqueous extract of its fresh leaves was conducted in female rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Low levels of phytochemicals (alkaloids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids) were found while 0.23, 0.03, 0.82 and 9.5 mg/g of iron, lead, sodium and potassium, respectively, were detected. Acute toxicity study was conducted with oral administration of 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg of the extract once to groups I, II, III and IV, respectively. Four rabbits died within 24 h and LD50 was estimated (940 mg/kg). 80, 40 and 20 mg/kg of the extract were administered daily to groups I, II, and III,
respectively, during sub-acute toxicity study for 14 days. All controls were given water. Statistical analysis of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase
(ALP), albumin and protein showed no significant changes at P<0.05. Changes in packed cell volume, white blood cells, haemoglobin, platelets, and differential leucocyte count (lymphocytes, monocytes,
eosinophils, heterophils/neutrophils and basophils) were equally statistically not significant at P<0.05. It is concluded that the extract had no statistical significance on blood parameters when administered
orally at tolerable doses since the values were in the range of control values.
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