Biological activity of Ipomoea pauciflora Martens and Galeotti (Convolvulaceae) extracts and fractions on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
AbstractHexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of different parts of Ipomoea pauciflora were tested for their effects on the survival and development of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), a Lepidoptera pest. For seven days, neonatal larvae (grown at 27 ± 2°C with a 16: 8 (L: D) h photoperiod) were exposed to different concentrations of crude I. pauciflora extracts (ranging from 0 to 4 mg/ml) that were incorporated into an artificial diet. Surviving larvae were weighed at days 6, 9 and 13 and were maintained until moths emerged. Eleven of the 18 crude extracts showed more than 30% larval mortality. The highest mortality was produced by hexane and chloroform extracts of seeds at 4 mg/ml
(96.9 and 93.8%, respectively), with LC50 values of 1.85 mg/ml and 0.54 mg/ml, respectively. Fractions of both seed extracts were isolated by gravity column chromatography over silica gel and analyzed for their active compounds. Eight fractions of the hexane extract and six fractions of the chloroform extract from I. pauciflora seeds, exhibited larvicidal effects at 1 mg/ml (mortality from 33.3 to 88.9% and from 47.2 to 77%, respectively). Changes in larval weight were observed as compared with the control group. Phytochemical analysis through GC-MS and H1 NMR revealed the presence of fatty acids and aldehydes in the active fractions. These results indicate that the bioactive extracts from the seed of I. pauciflora can induce lethal toxicity in S. frugiperda larvae or affect the weight of the surviving larvae.