Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using SSR markers
Increasing the diversity of the soybean germplasm base could introduce new genes affecting agronomic traits. In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. The structure based on model result showed that the cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans could be divided into three groups. Comparison of three types of soybeans showed that wild soybeans and landraces showed higher genetic diversity level than cultivars. The average genetic diversity index of wild soybeans and landraces was 1.5421 and 1.2864, while that of cultivars was 1.0981. A total number of alleles in wild soybeans were 224, while those in cultivars and landraces were 182 and 148, respectively, which were 81.25 and 66.07% of wild soybeans. The higher genetic distance (0.6414) and genetic differentiation (0.1200) and the lower genetic identity (0.5265) and gene flow (1.8338) between wild soybeans and cultivars were found. The proportion of low frequency alleles (allele frequency < 0.15) was the highest in wild soybeans (57.5%), followed by landraces (42%) and cultivars (29.8%). The UPGMA results also showed that wide soybean were of more abundant genetic diversity than cultivars. These results indicated that wild soybeans and landraces possessed greater allelic diversity than cultivars and might contain alleles not present in the cultivars which can strengthen further conservation and utilization.
Key words: Soybean, simple sequence repeat, genetic diversity.